Monday, 28 March 2011

The Statistical Probability?

In my last blog on Long Barrow navigational markers we will look at the mathematical probability of these unique ancient monuments only being found in this part of the world.

My last blog we showed that 'Long Barrows' are found in only 9 countries of the world and that the last northern ice cap that covered Europe was concentrated over the SAME 9 countries. Consequently, some well known Geologists have cried 'coincidence', but is it really? - only mathematics can prove us right or wrong!

The probability of a single country having 'Long Barrows' is simple calculation for there are 195 countries in the world - so the probability of just one having long barrows is 195 divided by 9 (number of counties with long barrows)- that's 22:1.  The odds of having a polar ice cap over your country in the last ice age is less as (although not impossible) the likelyhood is that the countries on the equator would be exempt - so we are looking for a figuare of half - lets say 10:1.

Therefore the chances of having a polar ice cap over a country that results in 'Long Barrows' is 220:1

The fact that 9 countries are together under the same ice and resulting in Long Barrow increases that figure by a factor of 9 - so the final probability of this happening at random is just under 2000 to 1.

So it's quite overwhelming  odds that we are correct!!

Monday, 21 March 2011

European Long Barrows

By Robert John Langdon

Long Barrows are not restricted to just Britain!

There are over 5000 long barrows in Northern Europe that still exist - imagine how many more there were 5,000 or even 10,000 years ago?

What is interesting is two-fold: why so many and in such a limited area?

If these objects were common to Mesolithic Society, why do we not find them in other areas of Europe?

So where do we find these Long Barrows?

and Czech Republic

As you can see from the map this is a very close network of countries and to make sense of the  Long Barrow demographics there must be logically some reason for this area to have so many of these unique monuments.

If my hypothesis is correct, Long Barrows are the Mesolithic sign posts for raised waterways directly after the great melt (Ice Age) in 10,000BC.  So is there any geological evidence for this area to be more effected than others during the last ice age?

The European Ice Sheet!!

You may call it a coincidence - but as you see, if I am right about the British Long Barrows, then as the Ice Cap effected not just Britain but also northern Europe. Consequently, the lowering of waters would have effected all of the countries that were covered by the ice cap and subsequent melt.  These new waterways would have been a natural resource for our Mesolithic ancestors to travel and navigate by boat.

These inland waterways can now explain with ease how the Amesbury archer and the highly polished Alp Jade axe heads found their way to Britain before roads were invented.

The most interesting aspect of these European Long Barrows are the dates we find within them  - nearly ALL of the carbon dated substance that are still available (remember these monuments have been around like the pyramids for 1,000's of years and robbed and reused often) have been dated at about 3700BC to 6000BC - this is 700 to 3,000 years before the current estimated build date for Stonehenge.

This article supports the main essay at the start of this month that showed our Great Ancient Civilisation not only travelled throughout Britain but navigated throughout all of Northern Europe in the Mesolithic Period directly after the Ice Age, directed from the shore by Long Barrows.

Tuesday, 15 March 2011

In support of Lost Civilisations

The Grand Menhir Brise in Brittany - which is 71ft in Height - could this marker be used to steer ships to harbour?

Last week I published an essay on my theory about LONG BARROWS as sign posts for our ancient ancestors.  In support for this theory I would like to refer to an article published in The Times on 1st December 2010 by Norman Hammond, which reports on an article from the International Journal of Archaeology 39: 433-435.

In the Paper and subsequent article, Peter Davidson reports that over a 20 year study, he has been able to identify that 'sea shore' stone circles are built as 'direction finders' for the nautical civilisation that lived in Mesolithic times of prehistory.

These monuments are widespread and start in Scotland - with clear routes over the Irish sea to Ireland down the European coast all the way down to Spain.  These sites were used not only as direction finders for the crew but more importantly to indicate the location of safe harbours for landing.

This proof of the use of Megalithic monuments such as LONG BARROWS clearly indicate that the water levels in Mesolithic Times of prehistory (directly after the last Ice Age and Great melt) were much higher than today.  So much so, that boats were able to navigate these giant inland waterways that lead to the oceans of the world.

Tuesday, 8 March 2011

The Lost Civilisation – whose secrets still survive on Britain’s hillsides

Take a drive down any country road that is surrounded by hills and valleys and you will see strange grassy mounts spread sporadically across Britain’s countryside.  These mounts are known to archaeologists as ‘barrows’ and are some of the oldest prehistoric monuments in our history.

If you look at the ‘interpretation’ of these barrows the process becomes very confusing, as Wikipedia will inform you that a Barrow or ‘tumuli’ is “a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves….. and can be found much throughout the world.”

Then it starts to get confusing as “the word tumulus is the Latin for ‘mound or small hill…….”
So is it a grave or a small hill, or a small grave in a shape of a small hill?

It starts to get even more confusing when you look at the varieties of Barrow you can find.  For there are:

Bell Barrows
Bowl Barrows
D-Shaped Barrows
Fancy Barrows
Long Barrows
Oval Barrows
Platform Barrows
Pond Barrows
Ring Barrows
Round Barrows
Saucer Barrows
And even Square Barrows!!

I make those 13 different types of barrow according to current archaeology.  Surely, if the archaeologists are correct and these are just grave plots, does it matter what shape they are?

The problem is some if not most Barrows do not have any graves inside them.  The classic case is Silbury Hill at Avebury, the largest prehistoric man-made mount in Europe.  This massive achievement took approximately 18 million man hours to build with antler picks and stone axes.

It was always believed to be a great ‘barrow’ grave to a king, like its Egyptian counterparts.  So on several occasions in the past great tunnels and shafts have been dug to find…… absolutely nothing!
No king, no gold and no lost treasure, just chalk.  So have we got the interpretation of these monuments so wrong and if so, what was there real purpose?

To answer that question we must look at just one variety of barrows – the ‘Long Barrow’.  We have chosen the long barrow because it is the oldest of all the barrows and if we can see why they built these types of barrow we may get a better indication of why the others were build later in history.

The first thing we should note about Long Barrows is that they are unique to Northern Europe, unlike the round barrows.  Archaeologists agree that the long barrow is the oldest monument to exist in our landscape.  This belief originates from the evidence that the structure is very elaborate and includes megalithic stones like the one found at Avebury and other stone circles.  Moreover, they are also aware that they contain bones from many dead people, collected together in the chambers of these burial mounds, rather than individual graves.

Carbon Dating of these bones, as in West Kennett, shows that the bones date back to 3700 BC (about 1,000 years earlier than current build of Stonehenge).  What must be considered is that that date is NOT the construction of the long barrow; it is the date of a set of bones found within.  It is quite possible that bones were cleared out of the open chamber in 3700BC for the bones that we have carbon dated today.

Another interesting feature of these monuments is the size and shape.  We know that these barrows were used for burials as we have found purpose made chambers and bones, so can safely assume the connection to death and the afterlife.  So the shape and size should give us an indication to the beliefs of our ancient ancestors.

Long barrows are long and thing (hence there common name), but more importantly is that they are thinner at one end than the other.

Figure 1. West Kennett Long Barrow - Quite a distinctive and strange shape.

Excavations have shown that there was a ditch that surrounded the barrow, which some archaeologist speculates that was there as a defence feature to keep out animals.  This assumption seem feasible at first glance but, if you want to keep something out you would build a fence as its quicker, cheaper and more effective than a ditch.

The only reason someone would build a ditch is to fill it with water.  We have recently discovered that the landscape in prehistoric times was much more watery than we had first imagined.  The last Ice Age had raised the water levels flooding the environment and turned the landscape to a watery environment or islands and peninsulas.

During the prehistoric period West Kennett was on a peninsula, surrounded by water.  This water would have filled the ditch at West Kennett and the monument takes on a new perspective, for its shape surrounded by water looks like a ‘long boat’.

Figure 2 – Long Boat?

The increase water levels would also answer another problem that has been troubling archaeologist over the centuries, how did they get these megalithic rocks weighing over 5 tonnes up to the top of these hills? 

At West Kennett, the shoreline would have been just 50 metres away from the long barrow, which made transporting these gigantic stones relatively easy. 

So why is a Long Barrow a representation of a boat? 

The long barrow represents the boat culture of this ancient society, they lived in boats and not on land as archaeologists currently believe, so when they died they were placed in a boat to go to the afterlife.  Even today in Britain some regions still place money on the deceased eyes to ‘pay the ferryman’ for the voyage to the afterlife.

Consequently, this also gives us a fantastic insight to understand the design of the boats used in this period.  This boat looks more like a barge than a canoe with the back end (the stern) being where they steered the craft (with a rudder), which means they used sails for power not paddles.

Moreover, a sailed boat would have a greater range than a canoe, which is made for just short distances.  The boats front is made at an angle not flat, this represents a design that was made for manoeuvrability, speed and distances clearly indicating the ancestor’s knowledge of engineering - This was not a primitive society!

The other aspect of the Long Barrow is the construction of the end (stern) of the boat.  On West Kennett and other long barrows, giant megaliths were used to highlight the entrance to the chambers.  They are not necessary to the construction, but they are visible a couple of miles in the distance.

Long Barrow’s when first constructed would have been covered not as with grass as today, but with the sub-soil that came from the ditch surrounding it.  In the case of West Kennett it would be bright white chalk.  The most remarkable aspect of Long Barrows is that they have been positioned length ways on, so to be clearly seen on the waterways that existed in the past.

Figure 3 – Showing three Long Barrows facing the ancient waterways

We have found the 8 existing Long Barrows that surround Stonehenge and its sister sites and found that each one points in different directions as measured by a compass, but to the exact contours of the predicted shoreline.

Moreover, not only are these ‘markers’ visible for miles in daylight, but because they are pure white, they can be seen on nights when there is moonshine.  Consequently, we can conclude that this was a 24 hour sailing society.

We can now also understand why they placed large Mesolithic stones in the stern of the Long Barrow, this would indicate the direction the boat should take if there was a split in the estuary.  We have found that the stern stones on all the long barrow boats from Stonehenge to Avebury ALL point in the direction to Stonehenge.

These amazing prehistoric navigational ‘sign posts’ gives us a clear indication that in the Mesolithic Period our ancestors sailed the length and breadth of Britain and did not, as current theories indicate, hunt and gathered on the land.  Their lives were healthy and good, this is reflected in the fact that they lived nearly twice as long as their future descendents in the Iron Age and their tools were sharper and smaller.

What we are witnessing on the hillside of our green and pleasant land are echoes of a great ancient civilisation that brought culture and evolution to our land.  This culture has now been dated by tracing the shorelines around existing prehistoric monuments and carbon dating the mooring posts and harbours of this civilisation.

The results are astonishing, as these sign posts were erected some 10,000 years ago 7500 BC to 8000 BC some 5,000 years before current estimations, making this civilisation the oldest known culture in the world.