Tuesday, 17 December 2013

Langdon's Prehistoric Map Series - A User's Guide


By Robert John Langdon

Video Guide



Transcript of the Video and Additional information

December 2013 saw the launch of my new Prehistoric Map Series with the release of the first three 1:50 000 scale and six 1:25 000 scale maps of central Wiltshire covering the topography of the four case studies contained in my book 'The Stonehenge Enigma'.

The maps cover a total of 800 sq km (500 sq miles) and contain not only over one thousand ancient monuments including Long and Round Barrows, earthworks and sites, but detailed locations of all the 'Post Glacial Rivers' within that area.

Post Glacial Flooded, Stonehenge
Area covered by the initial prehistoric series on a modern OS Map

I have decided to present these unique maps on the old Ordnance Survey one inch to a mile series created in the 1800's, as they show how the landscape looked before modern agriculture destroyed the natural historic environment including 400 barrows in just this one small area.  These excellent maps are ideal for the archaeologists and historians as they show some fantastic features such as individual standing stones and the original Sarsen rock crops which was still visible then.

For those who have not yet read my book  'The Stonehenge Enigma', my hypothesis states that after the last ice age when two miles of ice lay on our tiny little island, rather than the water from this great melt simply running away into the sea as most of the so called 'experts' believe, it did in fact seep into the soil and rocks creating vast lakes under the ground which hydrologists call 'aquifers' .

Hydrology Diagram

Because of the extreme mass of the melting ice (remembering that usually a couple of inches of rain normally results in massive flooding even today) the 126,000 inches of equivalent rain must have swamped the landscape after the last ice age and the evidence I presented in my book shows it stayed flooded for thousands of years afterwards.  And it was on this flooded landscape that man first built his monuments and sites as I will illustrate later.

On my Map Series the Post Glacial Flood waters are presented in two phases - the Light Blue showing the extent of flooding in the Mesolithic Period (10,500 BCE to 4,500 BCE) and the Dark Blue for the Neolithic Period (4,500 BCE to 2,500 BCE).  It should be remembered that the waters receded gradually over this eight thousand year period, so I have selected a maximum flooding level for each period to illustrate the extent of the waters.

Post Glacial Flooded Stonehenge
Light and dark blue show different time periods

So the waters illustrated by the the light blue colour were there no more than six thousand years, and in some cases less than a thousand years causing some scaring on the landscape in the form of dips and shallow valleys.  The dark blue river systems were there for nearly eight thousand years and a minimum of six thousand years creating the deep 'dry river valleys' we see today.

Now the book made a revolutionary and bold prediction - that all ancient monuments were built on the shorelines of these rivers and the book then concentrated on just four of these sites; Stonehenge, Avebury, Old Sarum and Durrington Walls (Woodhenge) to prove the hypothesis.  These maps go much, much further and looks at one thousand sites (has there ever been a greater test of a hypothesis?).

Some critics will look at the maps and see monuments in the predicted waterways - but don't jump to the conclusion that the hypothesis is incorrect - for not all of the ancient monuments here are built at the same time.  We are looking at ten thousand years of prehistory if we include Saxon and Viking barrows, so if half of these constructions were in the water (depending on the age) then we should not be overly surprised, for according to the laws of probability and chance at least half should be in the waters - but there not, as most they have been constructed in the Mesolithic or Neolithic period and lie on what was dry ground by the prehistoric waters edge.

Wilts, Barrows, Distribution Map
Distribution Map of the monuments against the Neolithic Water levels

If we look at the distribution map we see that about a dozen round barrows are in the predicted waters, so to understand why this is the case here, we need to see how archaeologists categorise the term 'barrow'.   It seems that this term is commonly used for ANY construction of mound built in history and not necessarily the prehistoric period we are studying.  So a barrow on an OS map could date from the age of Stonehenge to even the recent Medieval period.  Which is not very helpful and one of the many historic mismatches, which can lead to confusion.

So what can we see on these maps that we did not know before?

The answer to that question is EVERYTHING! I would be so bold to say that you can learn more about prehistoric monuments and why they located where they were than if you spend (as I have) many a long year in a classrooms with a dusty professors and their overhead projector slides, guessing at there use and the ceremonial nature of their construction.

What you should remember is that for the first time a map has been published showing not just the existing monuments, as you would find on a good OS map, but the missing features that modern maps and satellite photo's do not show - such as registered ancient monuments found through excavation. And yes I know you can get a list of monuments off the internet, but sadly most of there positions are wrong as they were mapped prior to GPS and dusty old professors have difficulty reading maps accurately.  Fortunately,  I have located most of these missing registered sites either from the old OS series or satellite photography over several years - a pains taking business believe me.

So lets look at my top ten sites for these newly released maps and learn some real history!

1. Stonehenge

Stonehenge, Post Glacial flooding Map
Stonehenge Area - Look at how they have lined up the Neolithic Barrows in line with the shoreline

This site is the basis for my book 'The Stonehenge Enigma' - as you can see from this newly released prehistoric map series of mine, the monument was surrounded by water in the Mesolithic Period (Light Blue) and hence the cover picture I've used of the book.  But the most important reason the waters in the Mesolithic are of great value is because in 1966 three/four post holes were found in the visitors car park, which as you can see here was on the shoreline of the river Avon. These posts were carbon dated and were found to be erected around 8000 BCE.  Moreover, this fact not only proves the maps are accurate but gives us the construction date of phase I of Stonehenge, which is five thousand year earlier than currently believed.

The other extraordinary feature of Stonehenge is its Avenue, as you see here it was constructed to meet the water level of the Neolithic Period some four thousand years after the Mesolithic Flood waters had subsided and were no longer flooding the visitors car park.

So one simple map - two of the greatest archaeological mysteries of the last 400 years resolved in just minutes - For these maps are the ultimate archaeological tool ever!


 2. The Cursus

While we are still on this small fraction of this map, we can even solve a third mystery called the Cursus.  Many a strange theory has tried to resolve this feature, yet with this map series to answered is painfully obvious.

In the past the prehistoric rivers used to flow through the centre of this site.  On one shore we find a Long Barrow made for the dead and on the opposite shoreline we find a Round barrow (no doubt representing the living).  So the Cursus represents the 'voyage' to the afterlife - But how do we know this?


Babylonian boat to the afterlife
Voyage to the afterlife as seen in Egypt and Mesopotamia

The religious traditions of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamian (as I will show in my new book released in June 2014 - Dawn of the Lost Civilisation) have always depicted death as a journey across water to the afterlife.   Here is a Mesopotamian picture of that same voyage and the walls of Egyptian temples show similar depictions of this most ancient belief system.


3. Vespasian's Camp
Prehistoric Vespasian Map

There has been a lot of media reporting about 'amazing and surprising' finds at a site close to Stonehenge called Vespasian's Camp - well it's no surprise to me for as you see it was an island in the Mesolithic (which means they needed a boat) and a prominent peninsula in the Neolithic.  For it was a trading post for those who travelled north from either Old Sarum to Avebury (the superhighway M25 of the Neolithic) or Stonehenge and therefore Vespasian's camp is the 'Clacket Lane' were you would have stop for quick wild boar burger or an overnight stay.

But I know what you are thinking - how do we know you knew they would find Mesolithic artefacts long ago?....... so lets make a prediction for the future, which is another positive aspect of these ancient treasure maps.

And that site is...

4. Ogbury Camp
Prehistoric Ogbury Camp
Ogbury Camp
Another 'pit stop' camp (has yet to be fully discovered) is Ogbury Camp - notice that the Mesolithic waters would have filled the moat for boats.

Ogbury Camp
Hoare's diagram 1810
There has been little to no excavation work this century and all we have is work undertaken nearly two hundred years ago, including this map.  A Neolithic Scrapper has been found (but the dating is questionable).  Moreover, the path at ten o'clock on the map (I would suggest to any budding amateur) would be the best place to look for post holes and artefacts, as it would have been used to transfer goods, from a new mooring point when the waters had dropped in the Neolithic.


5. Old Sarum

This place is a Case study in 'The Stonehenge Enigma' and from the map you can see why.

Prehistoric Old Sarum
Old Sarum

This was an island in both the Mesolithic and Neolithic and so would have been used for nearly ten thousand years.  Inside the moated island there are two harbours which would have dated from the Mesolithic Period but the huge ditches on the outside would have been constructed in the Neolithic Period as the waters receded to allow boats to dock.

Old sarum - air view
Old Sarum with concentric circle interior
Now lets go for something less obvious, to show just how powerful this map series can be!

6. Old Ditch - Compton Downs

Prehistoric Wiltshire
Old Ditch on Compton Down


Earthworks are one of the greatest mysteries to archaeologists and historians,  the history books will tell you they are either Roman, Saxon or Medieval, but what use are they to anyone?

I read recently in a well known archaeological magazine an article by a gulf war 'tactician' who believed that these were places built to stop carvery charges during the dark ages!! Sadly he failed to recognise that you could charge quite easily around the edge of these so called  'barriers' which would be much more 'sensible' than trying to go over the top against well defended troops - as most are usually less than a kilometre in length.

My maps make it obvious what they were, as the ditch connects to a water source and goes to yet another water source - its called a canal !!

Clearly on this map some of the old canal is missing from current view, which is no surprise as this feature is six thousand years old and would have been cut when the Mesolithic waters started to retreat and would be the only way reconnect to the existing settlements (remember this was a boat civilisation, walking and paths came much later) was to cut a ditch between two existing water sources.

Prehistoric Canals

The other interesting aspect of this part of the Map is the Long Barrow.  As my book shows these were used as both funeral monuments for the voyage to the afterlife and also as navigation markers.  So was the canal built to connect two waterways and the Long Barrow was a marker to steer ships towards the canal or it could be created to just access the Long Barrow much later when the Neolithic Waters receded?

I have yet to survey this area so, to be honest we don't even know if its a real Long Barrow (as archaeologists don't understand the difference between a burial boat and  oblong later Medieval mound).  So until someone armed with my map does some field walking we will never know?

7. Wansdyke

Looking at canals of the past this one is a real beauty!!

It took the Victorians one hundred years to build the Avon and Kennet canal - what they did not realise is that it had already been built six thousand years beforehand just 3km above their construction.

Ancient Wansdyke Map
Click on map to make larger
This is a remarkable piece of engineering and my maps show the reason why it was dug in its position in the landscape and did not rely on using the rivers the Victorian adapted for their own connection.

Prehistoric Wansdyke Map
Click to make larger
Even on this partial section of Wansdyke (this is only the west section) it would have had over twelve sources of water to fill the ditch and keep it flooded for boats.  The Victorian had to use a system of 'locks' to move water around - our prehistoric ancestors just created a new river to sail upon, which begs the question - who are the better engineers?  I shall be bring out a book in the spring that looks at this engineering project in great detail but two aspects I would like to share with you here is the scale of this project.  The Avon and Kennet was 6m wide and 1.3m deep, Wansdyke is 21m wide and 3m deep.

Wansdyke - from the air
Wansdyke a six thousand year old canal - notice the dry valley to the right, this would be one of the twelve river feeds for this project

Another area of interest again proves the value of these maps and disproves current archaeological theories.  At the west end of the map we see something quite interesting.

Prehistoric Wansdyke
Wansdyke splits into two sections

Wansdyke splits into two sections - both of which join to a water source.  So did the ancient sailors have a choice of directions or did one of the water sources dry up and was another canal needed to be built?

Again only more detailed field walking on this site will be able to tells us, if it was a split in the river system one of those Barrows that surround the junction would have indicated the way - but which one, or is one on the exact junction missing?

What is obvious is that this is not a defensive earthwork as current archaeologists maintain, as you can see you can walk around the edge which is on the higher ground and what was the point of two ditches, did another tribe come from a different direction? - complete nonsense!!


8. Durrington Walls and Woodhenge


Prehistoric Durrington Walls (Woodhenge)
Durrington Walls & Woodhenge


My book goes into great detail about this site but for this blog just take a look how the River Avon lapped not only to the edge of this site but inside, as it was used as a natural harbour - if you don't believe me just take a look at the profile of this site and ask yourself a question.

Why build a 'henge' when the centre has such a slope that any house would get swamped by rain water running down the hill?

The question is even more relevant when you realise that on the edge of the site there is perfectly suitable flat ground which would not flood - so were there builders 'stupid' or did they have a very good reason for their madness - the map again answers this profound question.

Durrington Walls (Woodhenge)
Cross section of Durrington Walls with water

For clearly it is a harbour for boats which gives us a major scientific clue on why are 'henge' walls built on the outside of the ditch?  It can not be defensive again as it gives the advantage to the attacker, the only 'sensible' solution it that it shelters the harbour from the weather.  Sorry to disappoint the ritual and ceremonial 'nonsense' lobby, it just make complete sense and its good science.

The other fascinating aspect  at Durrington Walls is the Long Barrow.  Obviously, the harbour was built to accommodate visitors to Woodhenge, so was the Long Barrow placed there to attract boats to the harbour?


9.  Oldbury (Oldborough) Castle

We have already talked about Wansdyke and this marvellous achievement of engineering that was created six thousand years before Victorian engineers attempted the same feat with less success.  But prior to this connection between the Thames and the Bristol Channel, there was a natural waterway that connected the two and that was at Oldbury.

Prehistoric Oldbury Castle
Oldbury Castle

North of Oldbury there is a natural waterway that runs from Silbury Hill to the Bristol Channel.  Therefore, this site was an obvious port-of-call for boats travelling from the Avebury area.  I would suggest that at some point during the Neolithic Period (before Wansdyke) this area dried up due to the receding water levels and would have isolated the Castle.  So a canal was cut from the deeper waters to the castle which can still be seen in part on the map.

Now did the canal travel past the site?

I believe is option open to investigation, for it is possible that the main route north of the site make have dried up as well and if this is the case a new route needed to be found.  Clearly, the river connection to the canal in the east died up and a second additional canal seems to have been added to continue the use.


10. Avebury

I kept the best until last as one of the most important questions (and seems we answered so much with only these three newly published maps) archaeologists ask is what come first Avebury or Stonehenge and the answer is again simple and make sense when you reflect on the structures in detail.

Prehistoric Avebury
Avebury and Sibury Hill
During the Mesolithic at the time Stonehenge (as we have discussed earlier) Avebury consisted of only a concentric circle site at Windmill Hill as the surrounding ground was under water.  No doubt Windmill Hill was an important as an island as it laid on the main trading route between the Thames and the Bristol Channel.  By the end of the Mesolithic (about 4,500 BCE) the existing Avebury site was dry and Windmill Hill was no longer a island as the rivers receded (although the map shows a river did still service its western side of the site until the Neolithic).

So Avebury would have been built during the Early Neolithic period which architecturally makes sense as the Stones were bigger, the site was larger and the mooring ditches are the largest found in Britain. This takes better organised labour and larger boats to achieve, so a later date is more logical.

Silbury Hill therefore would have been built at the same time and as we suggested in my book become the first 'Light house' in the world and acted like a beacon attracting boats even at night to the safe harbour of Avebury.

This is just highlights of what these new prehistoric maps contain - there is much, much more we can study but more importantly these maps give us an incredible tools to discover new sites and prehistoric features for it shows a timeline which can date features more accurately than present.

I hope you enjoy studying this map series and it encourages you to go out and explore for yourself - who knows what new exciting pieces of history you will discover - and if you do let me know here and I will publish your field work.


RJL

Friday, 6 December 2013

British Geological Society maps support my hypothesis

By Robert John Langdon

In a booklet published by the British Geological Society called 'Britain beneath our feet' these is a curious map on page 72 entitled 'Flooding in the recent geological past'.

BGS Map showing post glacial flooding
BGS Map of the post glacial Flooding
Now I am guilty (sorry!) of not including this material (proof 41?) in my book as it was published in 2004 and I've had a copy in my archive since then - but I failed to read it's entire contents fully as the section is about environmental flooding.  Moreover, reading the entire section it shows that this to date poorly publicised information is know in only 'certain geological circles' and is not common knowledge to any archaeologists (or if it was, they kept very quite about it!!)

The Section from the book (page 72) states quite clearly that:

"Flooding is the major and most frequent recurring natural disaster in Britain. But it is not a new phenomenon and geological information shows where it has happened in recent geological past - in the last 10 000 years.  BGS holds data that show where the floodplains occur - the alluvial deposits that compose clay , silt sand and gravel left behind in previous inundations"

To repeat - IT HAS HAPPENED IN THE RECENT GEOLOGICAL PAST - IN THE LAST 10 000 YEARS and take a closer look at the area of interest in my book Stonehenge.


Post glacial flooding, BGS Map
BGS map of Wiltshire showing Post Glacial Flooding

It continues:

Digital geological data which shows the extent of alluvial deposits are available at 1:50 000 scale for virtually the whole of Britain; they delineate not only the wide floodplains of major rivers and streams, but also the flat ground that floors all of the smaller tributary valleys and gullies."

Again in the text is the answer and confirmation of my hypothesis on post glacial flooding: THEY DELINEATE NOT ONLY THE WIDE FLOODPLAINS OF MAJOR RIVERS AND STREAMS, BUT ALSO THE FLAT GROUND THAT FLOORS ALL THE SMALLER TRIBUTARY VALLEYS AND GULLIES

In other words the post glacial flooding (less than 10 000 years ago) not only flooded the rivers to create new flood plans but the streams and the tributary valleys and gullies were also flooded such as Stonehenge Bottom, which is a dry river (tributary) valley that has sand, silt and pebbles under the top soil .  To date archaeologists have maintained this valley was dry for hundreds of thousands of years - they are wrong and the BGS are telling us that the entire region was flooded less than 10,000 years ago.

So when we now look at the post holes in the Visitors Car Park at Stonehenge and see that they are dated to be 10,000 years old 8500BCE we know now that this area was flooded and the post holes were placed at the shorelines of this post glacial flooding - not only I say so, moreover, so does the British Geological Society!!

The confusion in the past has come from geologists that call this river evidence 'head' and that it is formed from hill-wash - that clearly is complete nonsense!!

When you see what makes up 'head' compared to 'alluvium' you can see how they got themselves into this complete mess as BOTH deposits contains clay, sand, silt and gravel.  But alluvium is only used if found by an existing river - they never understood in the past that these rivers were ten times larger in post glacial Britain so these gullies and tributary valleys were also free flowing rivers and should have been termed alluvium not head for accuracy.

Now we have sorted that geological mess - the next blog will be about the launch of my new map series that show these (post glacial) features to a much higher degree than the map here or even BGS's 1:50 000 series which is from borehole data and is therefore somewhat lacking in detail or accuracy.

I will be providing 1:25 000 scale detailed maps including ALL ancient sites (past and present) - stay tuned as the big launch date is just 10 days away.

RJL

Wednesday, 30 October 2013

World's oldest Boatyard - more Post Glacial Flooding evidence

By Robert John Langdon

This article appeared during my research trip to Turkey last month so I missed the publicity - which is a shame as the consequences are enormous but alas yet again the archaeologists get it fundamentally wrong as I will explain at the end.  I have underlined aspects that are plainly incorrect!

World's oldest boatyard where prehistoric man built huge canoes 4,000 years ago discovered under area earmarked for new housing estate

  • Site is believed to be first prehistoric boatyard ever to be discovered

  • The site dates back to 1700 BC and is of 'international importance'

  • Excavations revealed channels shaped like bottom of wooden canoes

  • Archaeologists say channels are evidence boat was built at the site



The world's oldest boatyard dating back nearly 4,000 years has been uncovered by archaeologists at the site of a new housing estate in Wales.

The site, believed to be the first prehistoric boat building site ever to be discovered, was found when developers came upon the edge of a long-vanished Ice Age lake.

Work on the housing estate in Monmouth, South Wales, was stopped for six months as a team of archaeologists unearthed the remains of the ancient boat building site used by prehistoric man.

Scroll down for video
Site: Archaeologists have uncovered a boatyard dating back nearly 4,000 years at the site of a new housing estate in Wales
Site: Archaeologists have uncovered a boatyard dating back nearly 4,000 years at the site of a new housing estate in Wales
Important discovery: The site, which dates back to 1700 BC, is said to be of 'international importance'. Pictured is an artist's impression of the boatyard
Important discovery: The site, which dates back to 1700 BC, is said to be of 'international importance'. Pictured is an artist's impression of the boatyard
Development: The site was found when developers came upon the edge of a long-vanished Ice Age lake
Development: The site was found when developers came upon the edge of a long-vanished Ice Age lake

Archaeologist Stephen Clarke said the discovery of the site, which dates back to 1700 BC, was of 'international importance'.

Mr Clarke, 71, said: 'I have been digging for 55 years and I have never seen anything like it.
'No one in the world has ever identified a prehistoric boat building site before.

'They have found fragments of boats but never a boat building site - this is of international importance.'

Excavations at the site have revealed three 100ft-long channels which run parrallel to each other and at right angles to the ancient lake.

The 'dead-straight' metre-wide channels are shaped like the bottom of wooden canoes. They are also cut through a mound of burned earth carbon-dated to the early Bronze Age. 

Unearthed: Excavations have revealed three 100ft-long channels shaped like the bottom of wooden canoes
Unearthed: Excavations have revealed three 100ft-long channels shaped like the bottom of wooden canoes
Work underway: Archaeologists working on the site with the three channels of the boatyard clearly visible
Work underway: Archaeologists working on the site with the three channels of the boatyard clearly visible
Dig: Work on the housing estate was stopped for six months as a team of archaeologists unearthed the remains of the ancient boat building site
Dig: Work on the housing estate was stopped for six months as a team of archaeologists unearthed the remains of the ancient boat building site
Boatyard: The three 100ft-long channels run parrallel to each other and at right angles to the ancient lake
Boatyard: The three 100ft-long channels run parrallel to each other and at right angles to the ancient lake

Mr Clarke said they showed a twin-hulled boat with an outrigger being dragged into a huge Ice Age lake.
The discovery was made on the newly built Parc Glyndwr housing estate on the edge of the historic market town of Monmouth, South Wales.

Monmouth Archaeological Society moved onto the site soon after the edge of the post-glacial lake was uncovered by unsuspecting builders.

Mr Clarke said: 'It’s a hell of a site - within 60 yards of it we had Stone Age artefacts and six Bronze Age sites.

Boat: An artist's impression of the type of boat built in the yard
Boat: An artist's impression of the type of boat built in the yard

'The three channels turned out to be 100ft-long and all perfectly parrallel, level and at right angles to the edge of the post-glacial lake. The channels show they built a boat made out of twin canoes with an outrigger.

DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY BOATS

The oldest boats found by archaeologists are dugout canoes from around 7,000 to 10,000-years-ago.
The Pesse canoe is the oldest ever to be recovered. It was made from the hollowed trunk of a Pinus sylvestris tree.
It is believed to have been built between 8200 and 7600BC.
Elsewhere, a 7,000-year-old reed boat was discovered in Kuwait while they are also known to have been used between 4000 and 3000BC in ancient Egypt and in the Indian Ocean.
Logboats meanwhile also survived in Europe until modern times and are still made in the Tropics.
Planked boats are believed to have developed from extended logboats or rafts.
In Egypt, a method of using mortises and tenons to develop edge-fastening, instead of using stitching or sewing, became the method throughout the Mediterranean and lasted throughout the Greek and Roman times.
Source: ferribyboats.co.uk
'There was no sign of the wooden boat but there was evidence of wood working on the site - with sharp flakes of imported flint found alongside the channels.'

He said the boat was built on what was a huge prehistoric lake which became a home to hunter gatherers - and slowly drained away over thousands of years.

Prehistoric cave drawings in Scandanavia have been discovered depicting outrigger boats like the one built at Monmouth.

And they were still being used in places like Fiji in the 19th century.

A large boat of a similar date and form to the Monmouth remains was recently recovered from a peat bog at Lurgan, Ireland.

Monmouth Archaeological Society have previously won the highest award in their field - the Silver Trowel for the Greatest Initiative in Archaeology.

But after uncovering the prehistoric shipyard the archaeologists had to give it back to housing developers Charles Church.

Mr Clarke said: 'The prehistoric site is now mostly under a flood pond and the parts that aren’t have been built on.
'We have preserved it by recording it to the best of our ability before it was developed on. Unfortunately there just isn’t the money to preserve and protect all these sites.'

In use: The boats were still being used in places such as Fiji in the 19th century (pictured)
In use: The boats were still being used in places such as Fiji in the 19th century (pictured)

The research surrounding the prehistoric boat building site is now being published in a book called The Lost Lake.
Mr Clarke added: 'I am hoping other archaeologists will have seen similar channels on other sites and realise what was happening there.

'This is the first site that has been recognised in the world but there must be others out there.'

Evidence: Prehistoric cave drawings in Scandanavia have been discovered depicting outrigger boats like the one built at Monmouth. Pictured is an example of similar boats in use in Fiji in the 19th century
Evidence: Prehistoric cave drawings in Scandanavia have been discovered depicting outrigger boats like the one built at Monmouth. Pictured is an example of similar boats in use in Fiji in the 19th century


Now the obvious mistake is the dating of the so called 'glacial lake' - the last ice age ended about 17,000 BC with all the ice gone by 10,000BC to 12,000BC, we know this because Doggerland started to be eaten away by the sea in this period due to the raised sea levels.  The chances that this was a lake still in 1,700BC (15,000 years after the ice melted) is almost NIL as this map shows it would have naturally drained into the rivers that exist today, if it was a lake.

Location of Britain's first boat yard
Location of the boatyard
So what are we seeing here?

This is a map of the same area showing the 'superficial deposits' laid down AFTER the ice age as I have shown in my book 'The Stonehenge Enigma' this is POST GLACIAL FLOODING due to GROUNDWATER levels and effected a much greater area than the boatyard.

oldest boat yard, Post Glacial Flooding
Superficial Deposits showing Post Glacial Flooding


Theses raised rivers would created a flooded area of water in the low laying areas as shown here (in yellow and orange), but this is NOT an ice age lake as described as the level is maintained by flowing groundwater from the enlarged rivers feeding the area.  This FUNDAMENTAL mistake is due to archaeologists not understanding the environment after the last ice age during the Mesolithic period and partly in the Neolithic, for these raised water levels decreased gradually over the last 10,000 as they are still doing TODAY and eventually the River Minnow will disappear from the map.

So how accurate are the dates?

As archaeologists are ignorant of the hydrology of this area all they have to rely on is carbon dating.  They found a fire in one of the boat pits " cut through a mound of burned earth carbon dated to the early Bronze Age" Which clearly was used as a natural grassy dip in the ground and natural shelter for a fire at a LATER DATE after the boatyard was disused - for they have found similar dates at a camp over 60m away and probably not associated nearby the boatyard with other Bronze Age date.  For on site they have found Mesolithic tools.

Sadly, this confusion is commonplace with current archaeologist as we can see on this site just last year, for they (not believing in boats) first publicised there find as a 'Long House' but later they changed their mind as reported; "Earlier this year archaeologists working at a dig at the Parc Glyndwr housing development said they may have found the remains of a "longhouse" dating back to at least the Bronze Age and possibly as far back as the New Stone Age."

The only 'fact' is that this channel was man-made and cut into the riverbank of a Post Glacial River, which existed probably until about five thousand years ago - so we are looking at a date of about 3000BC - 8000BC and we can be quite sure of these dates as this is NOT the only ship 'slipway' to be found in Britain - there are THOUSANDS yes thousands of these throughout the country!!

Again, archaeologists are at a loss for these constructions which some still carry their accent name of 'Dykes' (something to do with water I would speculate?) or on OS maps as 'earthworks' - what archaeologists are unaware of is that EVERYONE of these slipways/canals feed directly into the same Post Glacial Rivers as we have illustrated here.

But what is even more unbelievable!
Is the quite remarkable fact it is a catamaran - as I predicted on this blog site in 2011 and my book in 2010.

Catamaran


http://robertjohnlangdon.blogspot.co.uk/2011/05/building-of-stonehenge-by-boat.html

And these are not made for rivers but sea travel - created by the megalithic builders to travel the known world as you will see in my next book 'Dawn of the Lost Civilisation' out in June 2014.

RJL

(by Robert John Langdon)



Prehistoric Britain is a trilogy of books that include - The Stonehenge Enigma, Dawn of the lost Civilisation and Echoes of Atlantis. The Second edition of TSE includes the locates the lost world of Plato's Atlantis. The Stonehenge Enigma, which is the first volume of Robert John Langdon's epic trilogy Prehistoric Britain. Reveals (through Radiocarbon Dating) for the first time that Stonehenge is 5,000 years older than currently believed and details of a six thousand year old map that lay partially buried in the ground that depicts the legendary island of Atlantis. The Slaughter Stone at Stonehenge is well known to archaeologists throughout the world. But what these experts have failed to appreciate is that this stone was deliberately place in the ground by the builders of Stonehenge to represent a world that was flooded some 6,000 years ago by the rising sea waters. The book concludes that the entire Stonehenge monument was built in reverence to the lost souls of Atlantis, which lay not in the Mediterranean or between America and Africa as most historians believe, but under the North Sea in place archaeologists now call Doggerland. Robert John Langdon shows in his new book that two stones within the Stonehenge complex have been identified by geologists as 'special', because they are of a particular stone (Mica Sandstone) unlike all the other large sandstones on the site. Moreover, the stones are in a direct alignment to Doggerland/Atlantis, which is now known to have been inhabited some 10,000 years ago by an unknown civilisation whose tools have been found by oyster dredgers scraping the shallow bottom of the North Sea for the last one hundred years. Finally, the book also proves that the Atlanteans built Stonehenge as a monument to their lost island and dead (hence the term 'slaughter stone' we still use today), which was not a stone circle facing the Summer Solstice as portrayed by the Druids today. But as a 'crescent moon' facing the opposite direction and the midwinter sunset, as our ancient beliefs have always associated stone, the moon and night-time with the afterlife.  TSE also looks at other sites such as Avebury, Durrington Walls (Woodhenge) and Old Sarum and discovers how the Post Glacial Flooding has affected these prehistoric ancient megalithic sites through raised groundwater levels.


Monday, 14 October 2013

Post Glacial Flooding of Ephesus in Asia Minor - A Worldwide Phenomenon

By Robert John Langdon

On a recent visit to Turkey researching more evidence for my next book in the trilogy, Prehistoric Britain - "Dawn of the Lost Civilisation," I came across the ancient City of EPHESUS.

Map of Ephesus
Ancient Ephesus showing old Harbour to the left


From Wiki:

Ephesus (/ˈɛfəsəs/;[1] GreekἜφεσος Ephesos; TurkishEfes) was an Arzawan (later ancient Greek) city,[2][3] and later a major Roman city, on the coast of Ionia, near present-day Selçukİzmir ProvinceTurkey. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League during the Classical Greek era. In the Roman period Ephesus had a population of 33,600 to 56,000 people, making it the third largest city of Roman Asia Minor after Sardis and Alexandria Troas.[4]
The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. In 268 AD, the Temple was destroyed or damaged in a raid by the Goths.[5] It may have been rebuilt or repaired but this is uncertain, as its later history is not clear.[6] Emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. Following the Edict of Thessalonica from emperor Theodosius I, what remained of the temple was destroyed in 401 AD by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom.[7] The town was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD. The city's importance as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the Cayster River(Küçük Menderes).
Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation.[8] The Gospel of John may have been written here.[9] The city was the site of several 5th-century Christian Councils, (see Council of Ephesus). It is also the site of a large gladiators' graveyard.

What the guidebooks and tour operators miss in their itineraries is the obvious - how come the harbour which is now dry, be so far away from the sea?
Now there is a throwaway line in Wiki "The city's importance as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the Cayster River(Küçük Menderes)" and the plans of the city portray this 'silting' as a small natural event.

Ephesus from the air


Ephesus map

But that is not the reality!

If you want to understand the size and scale of this so called 'silting', then you need to look at Google Earth to understand the scale of how far the sea is away from the town today.

Ephesus, Post Glacial Flooding
This is the harbour when it was a real harbour
Ephesus map flooding
Ephesus harbour in Mesolithic Period 10,000 BC to 2,500 BC

On the lower map you can clearly see how they tried to keep the Ancient city alive by cutting a route to the sea in the Byzantine era (395–1308) - remembering that the sea level was 2m lower at that period. It's the dark-blue cutting below the water highlight to the left of the city.
So what happened to all the water!!
In the Mesolithic Period, the sea level would have been at least 10m lower than today - currently as you can see from the map the harbour is some 7 kilometres (4.5 miles) away from the ancient town, so we are looking at a shoreline about 10 kilometres away when the original Neolithic Harbour was created.  The only logical way that this port (which goes all the way back to the seventh millennium BC) can be a harbour, is if the rivers (again in dark-blue below the highlighted water) were much, much larger in the past.  

We have seen from a previous post:


That the areas bordering Turkey and Asia Minor in the Black and Caspian Sea Areas were directly affected by the last Ice Age as archaeologists have now proven that the rivers swelled and both Seas doubled in size. Consequently, Ephesus (just 250 miles away from the Black Sea) clearly was affected by the same Post Glacial Flooding.

What we are seeing is direct evidence that not only did the inland seas of Europe and Asia Minor become larger than today but also ALL of the rivers that feed and were a source to and from these seas.  Moreover, this changed landscape had a direct influence on the evolution of mankind, as we were able to navigate these enlarged water ways by boat and so travel vast distances to distant lands as you will see in my next book 'Dawn of the Lost Civilisation' out in June.

Consequently, as we can see, that some 1000 miles from the last glaciation, what a dramatic effect it had on the environment during the Mesolithic period, (10,000 BC to 2,500 BC), for even in Asia Minor mankind placed their sites on the shorelines of these prehistoric waterways - So can any intelligent person now even doubt that the same effect and consequence happened in England at Stonehenge, which was just a mere 60 miles away from the ice cap?

RJL