Tuesday, 18 June 2013

Stonehenge / Atlantis - Momentous discovery has potential to completely rewrite World history

By Robert John Langdon

We can now reveal the greatest secret in the history of Archaeology !

  This is an extract of the last chapter from the book 'The Stonehenge Enigma' - Second Edition 2013, by Robert John Langdon - published today.



Epilogue - Ancient monument to the Lost World of Atlantis

If the builders of Stonehenge were the lost civilisation of Atlantis, where did they originate from and why did they come to the Salisbury plain to construct their monument?

We have shown (in the previous chapters of the book) that after the last ice age the ‘great melt’ flooded the landscape of Britain for over ten thousand years.  This flooding started a ‘chain reaction’ and as a consequence the sea level slowly increased and vast areas of land were lost including a land mass known as ‘Doggerland’. 

North Sea Level changes
Doggerland sinks long after the Northern ice cap melts

Throughout the 19th century, oyster dredgers working the shallow waters off the north east coast of England recorded frequent finds of animal bones caught up in their nets.  These discoveries became a regular occurrence as the fishing technology increased and the trawlers at a later date and in deeper waters of the North Sea also found traces of civilisation and a lost continent.  Sadly, the location were rarely recorded with any degree of accuracy; this material appeared to come from a number of areas within the North Sea.

One area where the greatest number of finds were was discovered is known as the ‘Dogger bank’ which lies just 90km – 110km (60-70 miles) from the coast of the British Isles.  This shoal (a shoal, sandbar , sandbank or gravel bar is a somewhat linear landform within or extending into a body of water, typically composed of sand, silt or small pebbles.)  rises about 45m (150 ft) above the North Sea bed.  To the north it plunges into deeper water and forms a subterranean plateau covering 17,600 sq. km. (6,800 miles) with a maximum dimension being 260km (160 miles) from North to South and 95 km (60 miles) from East to West.
Doggerland / Atlantis

Over time the number of finds reduced as the same area was dredged day after day and any artefacts sitting on the surface would have been scooped up and either returned as a curiosity (or in a majority) most of the time just thrown back in a different location.  

Even so, items such as; bear, wolf, hyena, bison, woolly rhino, mammoth, beaver walrus, elk, deer and most importantly horse have been collected.  This precious collection of findings gives us a fantastic insight to what Doggerland looked like, the environment that supported these animals and the climate of this unique area of the world.

It would be impossible to talk about Doggerland and its environment without understanding the clear connection to Plato’s written references to the lost world of Atlantis.  Over the years Atlantis has grown to be both a legend and the source of much science fiction.  This is neither correct nor helpful in tracing the history of mankind, as it moves the debate from scientific observation to fantasy and the degrading of the most important time of our history.

Plato
Plato
  
Plato is a source of credible information for he is not a ‘story teller’ like some other historic writers, he is fundamentally a philosopher whose writings are still studied even now, some 2,000 years after his death at the most famous and prestigious universities throughout the world.  This man is not prone to fantasy or exaggeration, his writings therefore must be accepted as true evidence that once in the distant past an ancient great civilisation did in fact exist and that they changed the course of mankind in ways which I believe we do not fully understand to date.

The next book in our trilogy traces the ‘megalithic builders’ from when they came out of Africa to where they landed in their boats on Doggerland following the herds of Animals as the ice caps receded and the food supply for these ancient ancestors moved north travelling to a new continent.  They constructed a civilisation that used new stone tools and incorporated megalithic stone constructions into their society.  

Consequently, we need to look at the probability that Plato’s ‘Atlantis’ is a genuine reference to this land, as it is the oldest written source and may give us clues of how this civilisation lived and traded.  Fortunately for us Plato gave some detail about this civilisation, such as how they lived and what they believed, which will allow us to compare what we know from landscape and archaeological finds and look for other areas of investigation the texts might reveal.

Plato’s most famous line from ‘Timaeus’, a dialogue between Critias and Socrates, where ‘Critias’ tells a story he learned through his family about the Greek statesman ‘Solon’ whilst he was studying with the most scholarly of Egyptian priests during a visit to Sais in Egypt in about 590 BCE.  The priests claimed to have access to secret records about a lost civilisation called ‘Atlantis’, which only they were allowed to read, for it was written on the pillars within their most sacred temple.  Now Sais was one of the oldest cities in the old kingdom and the city’s patron goddess was ‘Neith’, whose cult is attested as early as the 1st Dynasty, ca. 3100- 3050 BCE.  

The Greeks, such as Herodotus, Plato and Diodorus Siculus, identified her with Athena and hence postulated a primordial link to Athens. Diodorus recounts that Athena built Sais ‘before’ the ‘deluge’ that supposedly destroyed Athens and Atlantis. While all Greek cities were destroyed during that cataclysm, the Egyptian cities including Sais survived.  

As we can see from this connection, the deluge has incredible importance to ancient civilisations, clearly indicating that any prehistoric civilisation that wanted to ‘stay alive’ would possibly build boats, not for some, but for everyone.  Sadly, the city of Sais has been recently destroyed by farmers who used the house and temple mud bricks as free fertiliser for the fields – to this date the temple and its writings have never been found.

The most famous line from Plato’s dialogue is:

 “in front of the mouth which you Greeks say ‘the pillars of Hercules’ there lay an island which is much larger than Libya and Asia together” translated by W.R.M. Lamb 1925 or

“in front of the straits which are by you called the pillars of Hercules; the island was bigger than Libya and Asia together” B. Jowett 1871 

Atlantis
Atlantis - Portrayed as a  gigantic Island
This single sentence has caused no end of debate about the location of Atlantis.  Some suggest that ‘the pillars’ can refer to water flows, thus allowing the speculation (which is current) that Atlantis is a Greek Island.  Others suggest (including myself) that the ‘pillars of Hercules’ is the mouth of the Mediterranean between Morocco and Spain.  Now this is a case of translation and interpretation, the word ‘mouth’ is sometime called ‘strait’, in other quotations Plato refers to the Mediterranean Sea as “within the straits of Hercules”.
  
According to some Roman sources, while on his way to the island of ‘Erytheia’ Hercules had to cross the mountain that was once Atlas (the Atlas Mountains are in Northern Africa overlooking the Mediterranean).  Instead of climbing the great mountain, Hercules used his superhuman strength to smash through it. By doing so, he connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and formed the Straits of Gibraltar.  

But the best evidence is in the name itself ‘Atlantis’ for Herodotus (an ancient Greek historian,  484 BCE – 425 BCE) in a time before Plato’s writings calls the Sea outside the Pillars of Hercules  the ‘Atlantis Sea’ (Cyrus, 557-530 BCE: Book 1).  Moreover, even today we call it the Atlantic Ocean and in history c’s and s’s are commonly transposed.

So we are left with a clear understanding that Atlantis was in the Atlantic Ocean, but then come the next problem with this description “the island was bigger than Libya and Asia together” this is where most Atlantis claims fall flat.  Libya was well known in Plato’s time as a big country as it bordered the Mediterranean, but the reference to Asia cannot be the Asia we know as it was unknown to the old world and the Greeks, therefore the Asia that Plato was referring to is now called Asia Minor.

‘Asia Minor (from Greek: Μικρὰ Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, small Asia) is a geographical location at the westernmost protrusion of Asia, also called Anatolia, and corresponds to the western two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. It is a peninsula bounded by the Black Sea to the north, Georgia to the north-east, the Armenian Highland to the east, Mesopotamia to the south-east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west.’

The size of this ‘island’ is consequently a major problem for historians to date, as the only two island possibilities are the Caribbean in America or a continent that was once in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean that has disappeared without trace.   Well the islands of the Caribbean are far too small and  the trek across the middle of the Atlantic Ocean without landmass to guide the ships eleven thousand years ago would be too daunting to be truly feasible with ‘Bronze Age technology’ as Plato suggests. 
This is why the search has failed to date and all various ‘silly’ hypotheses based on the Mediterranean make news headlines.  If we look again at this passage and the exact wording of Atlantis we find something most researchers have overlooked in the translation and it’s the word ‘island’, the original Greek word is ‘nesos’ which can mean either island or peninsula.  

If we are looking for a ‘Peninsula’ (which is a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland.) that is outside the Mediterranean, then there are only two possibilities - Africa or Europe.  These are both outside the Pillars of Hercules and can be easily navigated by sticking to the shorelines.  The African continent has shown no signs of any peninsula on its Atlantic side that has disappeared in the past 10,000 years - but Europe has!

Atlantis Location Map
Europe 14000 BCE a large peninsula in the Atlantic Ocean (NEP)

If we look at a map of Europe at the end of the Ice Age, we notice that the water levels were about 160m lower than today, so much lower that extra coastlines are added to both Spain and France.  But when we look at the British Isles we notice Britain has completely vanished.

It has been replace a massive new land mass protruding into the Atlantic Ocean, for the English Channel, Irish Sea and the North Sea as we know them today has been replaced by a single land mass. Moreover, the land to the west of Ireland and North West from Scotland would have also been reclaimed from the sea. 

This peninsula (which includes to the North East Norway, Sweden and Finland, to the east Denmark and the Baltic Sea) creates a continent about the same size of Libya and Asia Minor, which correlates to Plato’s writings.  

We know from our history that the rising of sea waters over the last 10,000 years has caused flooding that created the island nation we know today.  But, do the writings contain any other information which will allow us to confirm this peninsula is the land mass Critias was talking about?

Plato adds -

“yonder (beyond the pillars of Hercules) is a real Ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent” 

in this sentence the ‘island’ is turned into a ‘continent’ so this proves that the translation of ‘nesos’ is peninsula not island, and in today’s terms, we are looking at a land mass that incorporates the British Isles, Scandinavia and the Northern European countries of France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Poland, Netherlands, Denmark, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the Baltic, North and Irish seas, that were at time land masses, which I call the North European Peninsula (NEP).

Therefore, do the other descriptions of Plato’s Atlantis match this new continent?

Where he does give us an indication of some other identification features for this lost continent is -

“and it is possible for the travellers of that time to cross from it to the other islands and from the islands to the whole of the continent”.

 If NEP is correct, this could mean either one of two different continents.   For about 2,000 years (between 10,000 BCE and 8,000 BCE) you could travel from the North West end of the NEP to the Faroe islands which were about five times larger than the islands we know today (due to the drop in sea levels) and then a short hop west to Iceland, which again, for the same reasons, was twice as wide as today, then finally over the short distance to Greenland and then America.  

The coastal route would then allow you access to the ‘New World’ down the entire east side of America.  The most interesting and controversial aspect, is that the Atlanteans would have discovered America 11,000 years before Columbus, which may seem far fetched but it will answer an evolutionary mystery that has confused geneticists and anthropologists for many years.  This mystery involves the spread of the A- blood group in Northern American Indians and ancient skeletons that have European features and stone tool kits.

Blood Types
Map of the Common 'O' blood group - 'A' was introduced 10,000 years ago in North America

Other illustrations of Atlantis, in Plato’s writings, can now be compared for further comparison such as the famous plain of Atlantis.  For - 

“The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia.”

So a level oblong shaped plain that was surrounded by mountains which were by the sea and the plain which measured about 250 miles by 350 miles.  The current North Sea (Doggerland) would comfortably incorporate a flat plain of that size and hence it sinking below the rising sea levels, for it measures 450 miles by 1200 miles.  There are mountains in the North in both Scotland and Norway which ‘descended towards the sea’ not even taking into account the mountains of Doggerland in the north which is now the ‘Viking’ and ‘Berger’ sand banks between Shetland and Norway.

Another indication that we are talking about a peninsula or part of a continent is the line ’lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea’ if this was an island would not ALL sides be on the side of the sea?  Our newly discovered Atlantis has one side by the sea where the city and plain lays and that is in the north, the area we know now as Scotland, Shetland, Orkney across to Norway, where it always rains.

He continues -

 “This part of the peninsula looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north. The surrounding mountains were celebrated for their number and size and beauty, far beyond any which still exist, having in them also many wealthy villages of country folk, and rivers, and lakes, and meadows supplying food enough for every animal, wild or tame, and much wood of various sorts, abundant for each and every kind of work.” 

Modern sonar readings of the North Sea floor has shown this land of ‘rivers and lakes and meadows’ and with the mountains in the north the great plain would naturally face south.
Atlantis Location Map
Doggerland with its vast plains and hills


Even when we search the description for the most obscure references to test this hypothesis we find correlation - 

 “There was an abundance of wood for carpenter’s work, and sufficient maintenance for tame and wild animals.  Moreover, there were a great number of elephants in the island; for as there was provision for all other sorts of animals, both for those which live in lakes and marshes and rivers, and also for those which live in mountains and on plains, so there was for the animal which is the largest and most voracious of all.” 

Plato is clearly referring to tropical animals such as Elephants and Lions and anyone living in Britain today would find this unlikely and therefore rule out this continent.  But again, we found in the catches of North Sea trawler men the bones of Elephants, Mammoths, Lions and Tigers in the last 100 years in Doggerland making this scenario ‘quite probable’  and it would not take much of a stretch of the imagination to classify ‘the largest and most voracious of all’  as the ferocious Sabre-Toothed Tiger, which coincidently went extinct during the ‘Atlantean period’ 14,000 BCE – 4000 BCE.  

So we are looking at a civilisation of megalithic builders that once lost their ‘homeland’ and no doubt a great number of friends family and loved ones in the deluge.  This being the case - how would we expect a civilisation to mark such a momentous occasion?

We are a civilisation that has had great losses through war and tragedy in the past, 9/11 in America we commemorated by memorial gardens and here in Britain the war losses are remembered by the cenotaph in London, where we come annually to remember the dead with a two minute silence.

How would future archaeologists view the cenotaph, if all written records are lost 10,000 years in the future - when the wind and rain have wiped the stone monument bear, but still resembling the stone pillar it once was?

War Memorial
Kozarac War Memorial - Does it remind you of something?
We now know from previous chapters (of the Stonehenge Enigma) that Stonehenge was built about 8500 BCE as a place for the sick and dead, we also know that the site was remodelled some four to five thousand years later, roughly at the time that Atlantis finally ‘disappeared’.  What I am suggesting is that the new monument continued its commemoration to the dead, but not to individual dead but the death of Atlantis, which would explain how and why this historically massive construction was erected.

Furthermore, it will explain some of the features of Stonehenge we have not mentioned to date in this book.  The popular view of Stonehenge is of a completely round monument with lintel stones completing the circle - but there is a massive problem, for not all the stones or the stone post holes are present.  Some people have suggested that the monument is incomplete, but those individuals do not understand the monument and the reason for its construction.

A monument to the dead does not face the Summer Solstice Sunrise it faces the Winter Solstice Sunset or Sunrise to mark the shortest day - when light overcomes the darkness, the symbolism of life after death.  That being the case, a monument to the dead should face either Winter Sunrise or Winter Sunset and Stonehenge faces the latter.  Another reason to ignore the reference to the Sun is that the Sun is usually a representation of life and a completed circle, were as the Moon represents the dead and a crescent.  So, the monument would be crescent shaped and hence the reason for the lack of two stones in the South West Quadrant.

So why the horseshoe crescent in the centre of the monument?

The crescent within the crescent faces the Summer Sunrise, this is very symbolic as it represents rebirth or reincarnation.  It’s a poignant message through the ages to us decedents of the Atlanteans, where they are telling us that their homeland maybe dead, but the survivors are still alive and will begin again.  So the ‘open’ end of the horseshoe points to the Solstice Sunrise, but the ‘main’ direction of the symbol points in the opposite direction – the winter solstice sunset.

Stonehenge - original monument
This is how Stonehenge would have looked when new in 4200 BCE

Furthermore, there in the centre of the Circle lays a very special stone - the Altar stone.  The reason it is special is two-fold. Firstly, it’s made of a material unlike the other Sarsen standing stones, it called mica. “Hawkins makes note that while all the other stones were either Bluestone or Sarsen, the so called altar-stone is ‘of fine-grained pale green sandstone, containing so many flakes of mica that its surface, wherever freshly exposed, shows the typical mica glitter’.  Currently, geologists are trying to locate the source of this sandstone in Wales.  Sadly, they are looking in the wrong direction as I would imagine it’s from their homeland and currently under less than 30m of water in Doggerland.

But this is not the only piece of Sarsen that is made of ‘mica-sandstone’.  The most important piece of this special mica-sandstone lays by the moat of the monument to the north east and is called the ‘Slaughter Stone’.   I will not delve into the reason that this stone is called the 'Slaughter Stone', but it is interesting that even the druids some 4000 years after the stone was laid into the ground still associated it with death.

Most archaeologists believe that the Slaughter Stone was once a standing stone at the entrance of the monument, this flawed ideas is the result of a hypothetical drawing by Inigo Jones in 1655.  This drawing shows Stonehenge as a perfect circle with hexagon trilithon interior and three entrances into the site with six erect standing stones as access points, of which the Slaughter Stone was one.  This idea was incorporated in John Aubrey’s drawing in 1666, which was more accurate, but again had the tendency to place all the fallen stones in upright positions.

Slaughter Stone
The 'Slaughter Stone'
  
This false assumption was further compounded by William Cunning in 1880, when (it was reported) that he suggested his grandfather “saw” the upright slaughter stone in the 17th Century). This mistake was latter corrected yet the myths amongst archaeologists still remain (Stones of Slaughter, E Herbert Stone, 1924 pp120).

The reality is that the Slaughter Stone was always (like the Altar Stone) a deliberate recumbent as the excavations of this stone by Hawley and Newall in the 1920’s clearly show.  As the chalk subsoil was also deliberately flattened before it was placed in its current position,  Hawley presumed that the Slaughter Stone was once ‘buried’,.  This idea is understandable as the stone does lay below ground level, but what Hawley never understood is that the reason the stone was in this position was for the same reason the ditch was built around Stonehenge, as it was made to be full of water. 

Slaughter Stone - cross section
Cross-section of the Slaughter Stone - showing it was 'deliberately' only partially buried

 This can be observed by the size of the stone hole called ‘E’ (WA1165) which lays two metres north west of the Slaughter Stone, but still within the ‘hollow’ that also contains the stone.  Most stone holes at Stonehenge are quite shallow – less than a metre in depth, but stone hole ‘E’ is twice as deep, over 2m.  If the Slaughter Stone was placed in it (as some have suggested) it would only be 3m high on the surface, compared to 4.57m for the Heel Stone a few yards away.  The only other places in Stonehenge with these large holes is found in the Ditch surrounding the site, which are deep as we have shown to reach the ground water level at construction.

In the past when the Slaughter Stone was placed in this ditch, like the moat, water would have surround the stone similar to an island - for what we see today at Stonehenge is a 6,000 year old model of the land we call Atlantis that lay in the current North Sea.

Atlantis - Stonehenge water feature
Slaughter Stone as it would have originally looked surrounded by water
Not only did they place a piece of special mica-sandstone in a watery ditch surrounded by water, but they also carved out the contours of the island, showing high and low ground like a contour release.  Archaeologists have always believed these features were ‘weather worn’ by age (although the other recumbent stones have not weathered in the same fashion) but recent laser technology has confirmed our belief that this stone was carved as the markings from the tools used can still be seen at microscopic levels.

Finally, and more importantly, the stone has been placed in a very strange position, almost in the way of The Avenue.  This shows that this stone and the Avenue have a connection, this type of connection we see in association with Egyptian Pyramids when ‘slight line’ are cut into the sides of the burial chambers to important star constellations to show their associations with the gods.  At Stonehenge, the Slaughter Stone and the Avenue are important as they link rebirth with the death of this Great Civilisation, for if we look from the Major Sight line stone - the Altar Stone and look towards the Slaughter Stone, it is quite remarkably a direct line POINTING TOWARDS the location of Atlantis in the North Sea, a place we now call Doggerland.

Stonehenge - points to Atlantis
A line from the Altar Stone points towards Doggerland/Atlantis

Yet, when you read the two detailed accounts of Plato’s work in ‘The Timaeus’ and ‘Citias’ where some of the narrative is repeated, but you get a sense that Plato is talking about two different times of Atlantis’ history.  The original landscape and people, as we have seen his dialogue are not fixed - 

“and it was possible for travellers OF THAT TIME to cross from it to the other islands”,

 “Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years, for that is the number of years WHICH HAVE ELAPSED  since the time of which I am speaking”.

So are we hearing about the original Atlanteans of 9000 years ago who lived in this green and pleasant land or are we being told of a land that was once great during that time then sunk overnight leaving nothing?

The secret is in the text at the start of the story of Solon and what the Egyptians told him -

“As for those genealogies of yours which you just now recounted to us, Solon, they are no better than the tales of children. In the first place you remember a single deluge only, but there were many previous ones; in the next place, you do not know that there formerly dwelt in your land the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived, and that you and your whole city are descended from a small seed or remnant of them which survived. And this was unknown to you, because, for many generations, the survivors of that destruction died, leaving no written word.”

What the priests was trying to tell Solon, is that the deluge remembered that Greek history was the one that wiped out Athens and that many such deluges happened in the past - so we can see the confusion with the dates of these floods.   Again we see this two-fold story unveiling with Atlanteans referred to as -

 “in your land dwelt the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived”.

Does this give us a description of an Atlantean?

Atlantis - land of the Giants
The Legend of Thor from oral traditions
   
We know from DNA the Scandinavians are descended from blonde and blue eyed ancestors with a pale complexion  – this description seems to me to confirm that fact, as if we use the word fair, we generally are referring to their hair and features.  Moreover, it also shows that two stories are being recited here as within the same book the Atlanteans are also called -

“various tribes of Barbarians” and  “a mighty power unprovoked” and “invaders”.  

Moreover, does the line -

 “And this was unknown to you, because, for many generations, the survivors of that destruction died, leaving no written word.” 

Suggest this race had no written language?  It is well known that the Nordic races relied on verbal story telling for their histories.  I believe this confirms a ‘Nordic’ Atlantean.   But, the most explosive revelation not picked up by most scholars is the line 

“and that you and your whole city are descended from a small seed or remnant of them which survived.” 

The priests are telling Solon that the Greeks are ‘seeds’ of their great nation.  Are they implying that they were the first people to colonise Athens and leave their philosophy and beliefs?  

The writing then goes on to say -

“Solon marvelled at his words, and earnestly requested the priests to inform him exactly and in order about these former citizens”

and it continues to reinforce this suggestion by saying - 

 “You are welcome to hear about them, Solon, said the priest, both for your own sake and for that of your city, and above all, for the sake of the goddess who is the common patron and parent and educator of both our cities.” 

So we now, not only have the Atlanteans ‘seeding’ the Greek population but also the Egyptian population a thousand years later.  The only question left to answer is when, and that is revealed just a paragraph later when he writes - 

“And the duration of our civilisation as set down in our sacred writings is 8000 years.  As touching your citizens of nine thousand years ago”. 

 So we have our answer, probably the most astonishing revelation in the history of world civilisation, the Atlanteans (“ from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean was insolvently advancing to attack the whole of Europe and Asia, to boot” in boats from a land beyond the “pillars of Hercules”) seeded and established the kingdoms of Greece nine thousand  years ago and Egypt a thousand years later.

The interesting aspect of this two-fold story is that some scholars get confused and believe that Atlantis sunk 9000 years ago, when clearly Plato was talking about the colonisation of Greece and Egypt, and then goes on to talk about the Atlanteans coming to conquer and enslave the Greeks and Egyptians, which is clearly a later date.  

When he does talk about Atlantis sinking, no dates are offered.  This is when the second story totally conflicts with the first, initially they were  “the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived”  but within a paragraph or two become - 

“For these histories tell of a mighty power which unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end. This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits which are by you called the Pillars of Hercules.

This vast power, gathered into one, endeavoured to subdue at a blow our country and yours and the whole of the region within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind. She was pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the Hellenes.  

And when the rest fell off from her, being compelled to stand alone, after having undergone the very extremity of danger, she defeated and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjugated, and generously liberated all the rest of us who dwell within the pillars.”

Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules

This dichotomy does not make sense unless we are talking about two separate time periods.  Nine thousand years ago Athens was being seeded and Egypt did even exist as a civilisation for another one thousand years.  But the Atlantean army set forth to conquer and enslave, but was defeated by a nation that was in its infancy!  

Clearly, this shows two stories with independent time lines.  With this in mind, we can date the end of Atlantis after the armed conflict and deluge that destroyed Athens.   For Plato writes - 

“But afterwards there occurred violent earthquakes and floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner disappeared in the depths of the sea. For which reason the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in the way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.”  B.Jowett (1871).
  
But another interpretation is - 

“But at a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down”. W.R.M.Lamb (1925).
I think the key here is ‘But afterwards’ or ‘But at a later time’, this was a time period unknown ‘after’ the conflict and I would imagine that conflict would be many thousands of years after the establishment of Greece and Egypt with independent armies and leadership.

We know from geologists that the last piece of Doggerland sank in about 4000 BC, which is about the time that the Greece Empire was at its height and the Atlantis Empire was all but gone, so it’s my opinion this is the time period Plato was referring too.  This would also make sense of the line - 

“For which reason the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in the way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.” 

For even today some 6,000 years later, we refer to the area as the ‘dogger sand bank’.

Finally, there is evidence within Plato’s writing that there was contact with the Atlanteans even after the flood had taken way their major city Atlantis, for a line in Critias talking about the final flood gives us get another clue to the location of this legendry land, for Plato writes -

 “ there are remaining in small islets only the bones of the wasted body, as they may be called, all the richer and softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeletons of the country being left.”  

So what was left after Doggerland disappeared?   

We have to remember this sea level increase was happening all over the lost continent, so much so the Irish Sea separated Ireland from Wales, the English Channel was formed separating Britain from mainland Europe and the North Sea took the last of the peninsulas land mass and island to become a vast watery landscape – but the British Isles remained.  In comparison would you not call that the ‘bones’ of what was formerly there, and does the makeup of this island look like a ‘skeleton of a country’............

Available on Kindle as 'Atlantis - The Stonehenge Enigma'


RJL

(by Robert John Langdon)

© ABC Publishing Group 2013  - All rights reserved.

Tuesday, 4 June 2013

Council for British Archaeology now supports my hypothesis

By Robert John Langdon

In the July/Aug edition of the CBA's magazine British Archaeology an English Heritage's report 'Palaohydrology of the Kennet, swallowhead springs & the Sitting of Silbury Hill' is examined in an article by Steve Marshall about Silbury Hill.

Silbury Hill - surrounded by water

The amazing aspect of this report is that it recognises parts of my hypothesis and accepts that in the Avebury area in prehistoric times, "groundwater levels were 5m higher than today" and the above picture is offered in support of this analysis as it has been customary wet this spring.  They also go on to tell us that " Water in chalk rivers like the Kennet comes mostly from underground, rather than from immediate precipitation.  Modelling ancient groundwater patterns, Whitehead and Edmunds found that the now seasonal Swallowhead spring - dry in summer, wet in winter - would have flown all year round".


Silbury Hill - surrounded by water diagram

This map is a very conservative attempt on mapping the groundwater and ignores the geological facts under the ground which are shown on this map.

Silbury Hill - surrounded by sand

For my regular readers this looks very familiar as all this appeared in this web site and in the First Edition of the Stonehenge Enigma:

Eventually, when Avebury lost all of its groundwater, our ancestors built Silbury Hill as the new landing site to the complex. Silbury Hill is the largest man-made island in Europe, and was set at the end of the Neolithic waterway.  Composed mainly of chalk and clay excavated from the surrounding area, the mound stands 40 metres (130 ft) high and covers about 5 acres. As we have already seen, it would have taken 18 million man hours to deposit and shape this vast pile of chalk and earth on top of the natural hill that forms Silbury’s foundation. The base of the hill is circular, 167 metres (548 ft) in diameter. The summit is flat-topped and 30m (98ft) in diameter.

At this point, to maintain the link to Avebury, the Sanctuary was created and a stone causeway was introduced from the landing site at the end of the peninsula to Avebury.  It should be noted that the original track went North East from the Sanctuary. This path would have taken our ancestors around the groundwater and over the hill to a place called Falkner’s Circle, which has now been destroyed, but once overlooked Avebury.  From this stone circle, the path went down to the existing stone avenue toward Avebury. This stone avenue, like the one at Stonehenge, has a strange kink in its design, as if it went in a different direction before being changed at a later date. The kink shows that the original path led to Falkner’s Circle, and we believe this was the route our ancestors used in the Neolithic Period.

Which will give us a map that looks more like this:

Silbury Hill - post glacial flooding

And the reason for Silbury Hill with the flat top - very simple really!!



Silbury Hill - Neolithic Period


Now that all the critics have been silenced by the scientific logic and evidence produced to support my hypothesis we can now move on to more important aspects of this fundamental discovery - this is examined closely in the second edition out on the 16th June and the 18th Chapter of this revolutionary book will be fully reproduced on this web site to coincide with a worldwide press release.

RJL

(by Robert John Langdon)