Tuesday, 22 December 2015

New Scientific Evidence proves Stonehenge is 5,000 years older than believed

A Recent paper by the University of London, Southampton, and Manchester; about the discovery of the quarry that provided the 'bluestones' for Stonehenge at Craig Rhos-y-felin caught the eye of the world by archaeologists announcing Stonehenge was originally built in Wales then transferred to Salisbury Plain 500 years later.

Which is totally incorrect and wholly inaccurate?

The ‘Craig Rhos-y-felin: a Welsh bluestone megalith quarry for Stonehenge’ was a report published in December’s Edition of Antiquity Magazine, it stated that a series of radiocarbon dates were found on the site by a 4m long monolith (ready for transportation) made of a rock which was microscopically identified as the same bluestone as the rocks that surround the existing Stonehenge site. Moreover, the report’s authors had decided that just two random sample dates (the two closest to their well-publicised hypothesis on Stonehenge's construction date) would be headlined and advertised to the mass media.

Mike Parker Pearson et al. Craig Rhos-y-felin: a Welsh bluestone megalith quarry for Stonehenge. Antiquity, 89, pp 1331-1352. doi:10.15184/aqy.2015.177. 

In spite of these published radiocarbon dates the archaeologists had an obvious problem, as the samples were still 500 years older than the dates, they were hoping to find.  So they had to invent a new ‘story' to compensate for this ‘poor science’ and so started the speculation, in their report, that the monument was originally built in Wales then moved at a later date. This will no doubt be followed by another report in a few year's time (archaeologists love to do the lucrative lecture tours on limited ‘titbits’ of information) finding remains of a few small bluestones within a short distance from the quarry site and claiming them as evidence of the original Stonehenge – probably followed by even more lucrative lecture tour.

Nevertheless, if we take an unbiased and more analytical view of the report, we find something very different from the media claims and much more scientifically interesting.

Mike Parker Pearson et al. Craig Rhos-y-felin: a Welsh bluestone megalith quarry for Stonehenge. Antiquity, 89, pp 1331-1352. doi:10.15184/aqy.2015.177.

What was contained in detail within the report but overlooked, was the fact that a considerable number of Mesolithic carbon dates (fourteen compared to just two Neolithic dates the report headlined) were obtained from actual human-made hearths much, much earlier in history compared to two random nutshells found in an ‘occupation area’ - which could have been scattered by animals or even the weather?

Consequently, the lowest material found in the excavated area (remembering not the entire site was excavated) was dated at 8550 - 8330 BCE.

These earlier and more frequent dates are from hearths rather than just random nutshells and was completely overlooked by the team, as it was 'perceived' to be too early to have a connection to Stonehenge. Nevertheless, this connection was well established some fifty years ago and was reported in a 'press release' by myself in August 2011 - entitled ‘The Stonehenge Enigma; an inconvenient truth’:

The article shows that English Heritage did their utmost to conceal the truth about the real 'probable' date of Stonehenge being 5,000 years earlier than their current position. This scientific evidence was based on radiocarbon dating of the three ‘giant’ post holes found in the visitor’s car park during its construction in 1966.

At the time the wooden remains of the posts (found at the bottom of the post holes) were labelled Neolithic in origin to support the existing antler pick dating hypothesis and was placed on a shelf probably for eternity. Fortunately, some years later an inquisitive Ph.D. student writing a thesis on the Stonehenge’s environment found these samples and concluded that they could not be as claimed by the archaeological community, as they were from pine trees which pollen analysis had concluded were ‘extinct’ in this area at this time of Stonehenge’s supposed construction.
Old Visitors Car Park showing the suggested shoreline of the Avon during the Mesolithic Period

The officials (of the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission, which was later renamed English Heritage) were dismay when they found out that their 'experts' were wrong, and the student was absolutely correct (sadly, never gave her a deserved job as she clearly knew more than the supposed ‘experts’) in her assumption as the carbon dating placed them at the start of the Mesolithic of 8860 to 6590 BCE just after the ice age.
So, rather than then admitting their fundamental error and re-opening the site to look for more holes and dates to get to the bottom of this unique mystery (which would have been the case for most credible scientific disciplines) they came up with a remarkable and unproven 'story' that these were random 'totem poles' placed by wandering 'hunter-gatherers' which did not relate to the Stonehenge site just 50m away. But was a sheer coincidence, which should be totally ignored.

Over the last four years since my ‘press release’ was ignored by the archaeology world, the story has moved on with even more evidence of English Heritage’s continuing cover-up. 

Archaeologists have now found charcoal from fires in the centre of the Stonehenge monument, which date back to the same early period (but again the news was suppressed) and less than a mile away at the top of the hill that overlooks Stonehenge a site called ‘blick mead’ excavated by the Open University, which is showing us that people were living and 'feasting' at this same earlier period  yet this 'totem pole' myth is still firmly entrenched in EH's view of our prehistoric history through their many costly guidebooks.
Moreover, recently the Stonehenge site has had a major transformation as it has closed the b-road that went past the stones and gave access to the old visitor’s car park - which was now moved a mile up the road to the new multi-million-pound visitors centre. Consequently, the aged tarmac was removed and was replaced by grass to make it look more like it did at the time of Stonehenge’s construction.
Now one might imagine that if you were going to remove the tarmac from the old visitor's car park (knowing you have found something quite extraordinary underneath in the past) you would take this 'once in a lifetime opportunity’ to excavate the car part fully to see if you can find any more evidence about the Mesolithic Period of Stonehenge’s history?

Did they? - did they heck!! 

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance; it is the illusion of knowledge.” 
― Stephen Hawking 

So I was personally saddened that further evidence which could support my theory (that these post holes were mooring posts for boats bring the stones from the Preseli Mountains of Wales) would be lost forever. However, a recent blog post has opened up a new light in this matter.
Tim Daw was a warden at Stonehenge, and he has always been active in taking pictures on the site as he worked on a day-to-day basis at Stonehenge and published them on his blog site.  Last year, he found patch marks by the centre upright stones that were identified as the possible missing circle stones of the Inner Circle, therefore his contribution to the investigation of Stonehenge has been immense.

Tim Daws picture of the post hole - EH would like to lose!! How much history is being lost through ignorance and propaganda??

Tim also took some shots of trenches dug during the reinstatement of the grass over the old visitor’s car park and found something quite remarkable - but he was not allowed to publish as EH had warned him that his unauthorized blog activities had to stop or else.... three guesses why this happened? Tim being a man of principal resisted and resigned so continuing his blog work and as a consequence, these new ‘unofficial’ pictures have been made available, showing, even more, post holes are under the car park.

This newly discovered post hole is on the line of four other known post holes.  Moreover, it supports my hypothesis, that they are all on the shoreline of the River Avon at about 8400 BCE.   Furthermore, the fact that rivers in Britain were ten times larger in the past than today effected on not only the River Avon. - but the River Nevern, at Craig Rhos-y-felin which the current ‘Brynberian Stream, (which feeds the Nevern) is only 20m away, from the newly identified quarry site.

A, B, C are the original 1966 post holes - D was found by Tim Daw (before he was asked to leave!)

Consequently, during the Mesolithic period, the newly quarried stones could be placed in boats on the shoreline of the quarry in Wales and could be sailed almost ‘directly’ to Stonehenge, via just two or three enlarged rivers. And not over the longer sea route, some archaeologist attempted to consider in the past.

Direct Boat route from Preseli to Stonehenge using the raise river levels of the Mesolithic
This report also goes into great depth in the analysing of the Stone structure of the bluestones from other Preseli sites such as Carn Goedog, Cerrigmarchogion and Craig Talfynyydd, Carn Breseb, Carn Gyfrwy and finally Carn Alw areas. All of which have streams and rivers connecting them with the River Nevern – unfortunately, the archaeologists only can conceive this connection as a ‘religious’ connection rather than something quite functional.  Yet, archaeologists seem able to consider the existence of a hypothetical road system such as Mike Parker-Pearson’s ox-cart route, that follows the current A40 route, which doesn’t take into account the woods, swamps and even forests of that period, which would make passing impossible.

Nevertheless, this should be no surprise to readers of the Craig Rhos-y-felin report is full of inconsistencies and logical inaccuracies as the layout of the site was never taken into consideration. My analysis of the area shows that the ‘Brynberian Stream’ by the rocky outcrop was much higher in the past - such as in the period directly after the last ice age. This flooding of this area is well known to geologists for they found sand deposits are in the sub-soil. Geologists on the team seemed to have created a false assumption that these flood waters are from ‘ice melt’ and rapidly disappeared after the ice age into the sea. Sadly, this idea is easy shown to be a false assumption as, if true,  the sea levels would have risen to a couple of meters short of today’s levels then plateaued – but this is not the case as the evidence shows that the ‘seepage’ into the oceans took thousands of years to occur and hence Doggerland off the East coast of Britain, took almost ten thousand years to disappear under the North Sea.

Craig Rhos-y-felin seen from space (white circle)

Criag Rhos-y-felin as it would have looked (as an island) in the Mesolithic

This misunderstanding of the past water levels has lead to Geologists misinterpreted the sediments or the past.  A very similar soil found in one location is given a different name to the same type of soil in another location – so the term ‘Colluvium’ and ‘Alluvium’ is a case in point.  If it is found in a dried-up land area it as called Colluvium, but if it’s by an active river, it’s called Alluvium – the point is THEY ARE THE SAME MATERIAL – a combination of silt and sand.

Remembering this lack of distinction, we find in the report that an old river ran around this quarry as long ago as 5620 – 5460 BCE and possibly up to 1030 – 910 BCE.

“Most of the site was then covered by a layer of yellow colluvium (035), dated by oak charcoal to 1030–910 cal BC (combine SUERC-46199; 2799±30 BP and SUERC-46203; 2841±28 BP). This deposit is contemporary with the uppermost fill of a palaeochannel of the Brynberian stream that flowed past the northern tip of the outcrop. Charcoal of Corylus and Tilia from the basal fill of this palaeochannel dates to 5800–5640 cal BC (OxA- 32021; 6833±40 BP) and 5620–5460 cal BC (OxA-32022; 6543±37 BP), both at 95.4% probability” 

Consequently, what the report is trying to tell us, is that an enlarged stream that feed into the River Nevern was flowing at during the Mesolithic Period up to the quarry outcrop rocks and just a few metres away even up to 1000BCE, the obvious system to transport large stones to their destination as we have seen from other such construction else where in the world like Egypt.

The 'enlarged stream' is more of a huge river - perfect to float a boat with a four-tonne bluestone down river to the Nevern

Moreover, the site layout also gives a clear indication on when the stone was truly quarried. There is a single monolith ready for transportation is by the river on the east side of the site and the hearths which are clearly man-made are a few metres south of this monolith – where you would expect them.  The problem for archaeologists is that these are Mesolithic hearths, and they're not just one but four hearths dating from 8550 – 8330 BCE; 8220 – 7790 BCE 7490 – 7190BCE and 5210 – 4947 BCE and yet the report quite clearly states:

“There is no evidence of any Mesolithic Quarrying or working of Rhyolite from this crop” 

This is an astonishing unscientific claim for how would they know what tool marks are Mesolithic or Neolithic (would they not be the same tools?) And secondly, what do they think they were doing there during at the quarry during this 1500 year period?

However, what is quite remarkable is the fact that this is a ‘rhyolite’ Quarry. For back at Stonehenge Pit 9580 which was excavated in 1989, was found to be in line with not only with the four post holes found in 1966, but moreover, the one found last month by Tim Daw we talk about earlier

The excavation report stated that  Pit 9580 width started at 1.3m and was then widened to 1.9m  – so what was this large trunk of a tree used for? The archaeologists believed it to be a ‘totem pole’ – but why remove such a pole to put in a larger version at a later date? What I am sure is that it could take a considerable weight if required – but what could be the load be?

The answer comes 20cm down the infill of this post hole as they found a piece of Rhyolite (would you believe?)  And the date of this deposit can be estimated as the soil deposit it was sitting upon was carbon dated as 7560 - 7335 BCE overlapping with the date of hearth number three found at the quarry site.  

The final and conclusive proof of my hypothesis!!

Post holes at Stonehenge on the shoreline of the River Avon - taking off the Preseli bluestones from the boats

Moreover, we can now narrow down the exact date for the construction of Phase I of Stonehenge (bluestone placements in the Aubrey holes) to 7490 to 7335 BCE. In fact, if we look at the carbon dating of the hearths at Craig Rhos-y-felin and the Car park post hole samples date at Stonehenge we see something quite remarkable – not only do we have one hearth matching radio carbon dates at Stonehenge – we have all three!!

    • Craig Rhos-y-felin (BCE)                             Stonehenge Visitor's Car Park(BGE)
    • Hearth One: 8550 – 8330                               Post A. HAR-455 8820 - 7730 
    • Hearth Two: 8220 – 7790                               Post B. GU-5109: 8090 - 7690 
    • Hearth Three: 7490 – 7190                             Post C. QxA-4220: 7580 – 7090 
    • OxA 30503: 7490 – 7190                               Post B. Har-456: 7480 – 6590 
    • SUERC-51163: 7540 - 7300                          Post 9580. QxA- 4219: 7700 - 7420 

So is it a ‘cock-up’ or a conspiracy? 

EH has invested millions in its new 'money spinner' the Stonehenge Visitors Centre. Within it you will see many claims and models about the origin and possible function of Stonehenge - this exhibition has cost hundreds of thousands of pounds to design and build.  BUT what would happen if their assumptions are proven wrong?

Not only would it have to scrap all the exhibits and a new ones installed, but also the books and literature were written over the decades would need to be 'pulped' as they tell a story of nonsense, just as the Victorian literature was ‘shelved’ when carbon dating revealed that it was not a Roman Temple after all.  Moreover, the directors responsible for this multi-million pound fraud would suffer a potential financial and credibility loss would have to 'fall on their swords' and find new jobs (and there is not many jobs around for discredited archaeologists or historians).
Or they are just very good at their job!

Wednesday, 3 June 2015


In my new book 'Dawn of the Lost Civilisation' I have renamed the lost 'Cro-Magnon' species to a more accurate classification of 'Homo Superior' - the reason for this change is obvious from this picture and the simple fact that our ancestors IQ would be over 120 which in today's society makes him 'Superior' according to leading psychologists.

I hope to have the book out by this autumn.


Homo Superior


Cro-Magnon is the name of a rock shelter in the Dordogne region of France. Here three prehistoric skeletons were found in 1868; these humanoid remains are about 28,000 years old. These remains showed the same forehead, upright posture and slender skeletons as modern humans. Necklaces were found buried with their bodies suggesting the first forms of humanoid burial rights. These bodies showed signs of illness and injury; some had fused vertebrae in their necks, and others have skull fractures showing that they had cared for each other as these skeletons showed signs of healing and therefore, living beyond their injuries.

To place an exact date on when this interbreeding began or when the first Cro-Magnon was born is impossible to suggest, but another cave discovery of a Cro-Magnon skeleton near the Iron Gates in Romania, maybe the first indication of the interbreeding. It is situated in the Danubain corridor, which maybe the entry point of the Cro-Magnons into Europe from their Asia base. Pestera cu Oase (cave with bones) ‘Oase 1’ has a thick jawbone and other Neanderthal features, but with other Sapien features, he has been dated at 35,000 years ago

So, why are Cro-Magnons not seen as a separate species anymore?

Before we try to answer this question, we must try to understand why archaeologists in the first instance believed this was a sub-species of man and hence the name Homo Cro-Magnon giving to the remains rather than Homo Sapien.

Cro-Magnon’s skulls are longheaded; the forehead is straight, the brow ridges only slightly projecting; the cranial vault is noticeably flattened and the occipital bone (at the back of the head) projects backwards. The cranial capacity (brain) is large, about 1600cc . Although the skull is relatively long and narrow, the face appears quite short and wide. The forward projection of the upper jaw is also distinctive; the eye sockets are low-set and rather square in shape, and the nasal aperture of the skull is narrow and powerfully projecting.

 The mandible is robust, with massive ascending ramus (the upward projection of the jaw, where it attaches to the skull), has strongly developed points of muscular attachment and quite a prominent chin. The stature of Cro-Magnon is lofty on average over six feet tall. Although in some places even taller and their longevity was exceptional for a prehistoric Society as some skeletons are found to be over 50 years old, which may no sound very old today, but this should be viewed in the context to other prehistoric groups – such as Neolithic farmers whose average age was just 25 and even a Roman citizen who was lucky to survive until 30.

Therefore, as you can see the Victorians with an average height of 5’ 2” and an average age of death at 34 (44 for the academic classes and 25 the working class) saw the Cro-Magnon as a sub-species as far apart from themselves as the Neanderthal. As they were taller, faster, stronger, more intelligent and lived longer.

An interesting fact is that there are notable differences between eastern and western types of Cro-Magnon, as we have shown humanoids mutated to create M173 and M343 haplogroup, some moved east the others moved west. Archaeologists have given these individual groups to the east, titles to show this variation such as Brunn Man, Predmost or Combe Capelle; these groups are generally shorter, more gracile (thinner) and smaller brained than our western variations of Cro-Magnons, which in my mind shows them to be a separate mutation or breed - as a Corgi is clearly different in size, shape and attitude to an Irish wolfhound, yet they are both technically canines.

Moreover, M173, M203 and M343 come from Haplogroup R1 – so we now know the genetic signature of the Cro-Magnons, which will allow us to trace them in future chapters.

However, current anthropologists now place them all under the same banner of ‘modern man’ (Homo Sapien Sapien) which has the effect of confusing the issue and leading to false generalisations that Cro-Magnon were not as tall or larger brained as first reported. This satisfies the need to be politically correct with human evolution so not to upset either the ‘creationists’ or racial lobbies particularly in the America, where most of the funding is found. As an example, the Combe Capelle Man is only 5’ 4” rather than the six foot three statue of the Cro-Magnon found in western Europe, and hence some reference books classify incorrectly Cro-Magnons had an average height of as 5’ 6” – 5’ 7” – successfully reducing their uniqueness.

The second example of the difference between east and west Cro-Magnons is the tool kit they used; the eastern tools are clearly just a slight extension of the Neanderthal toolkit from the past 80,000 years, whereas the western toolkit show signs of high craftsmanship. Nevertheless, the clearest signs of difference, not only between the east and west Cro-Magnons but also all other members of the human tree, is that Cro-Magnons brought art and music to our civilisation. It is in the paintings found ‘throughout’ the Pyreness and Cantabrian mountains in France, which have become famous throughout the world, showing a high degree of skill and coordination of these artists, which are missing in all these eastern groups.

Anthropologists are also generally in agreement that the eastern Cro-Magnons were nomads indicated by their numbers were extremely thin and scattered in occupational sites. While the western Cro-Magnon numbers are usually thick (indicating a long and settled occupation in a single place) and are clustered towards the rivers of the European continent, which could explain the sources of their food and the differences in their physical appearance and consequently, their intelligence. These occupational sites also contain the first evidence of ‘houses’ proving that this society was not the stereotypical ‘cave men’ or ‘hunter-gatherers’ archaeologists still use to describe prehistoric Europeans. 

The rise of Homo Superior

I fundamentally believe that Cro-Magnons (Homo Superior) were the result of a interbreeding between migrating Sapiens and Neanderthals, and this kind of cross-breeding took place on many occasions and locations ‘prior’ to their travels into Europe from Asia. This was not the only ‘interbreeding’ that led to human mutations in our history, for weird variations of humanoids are being found in fossil records all over the world some of which are quite peculiar and short lived, such as the ‘hobbit’ in the far east (Homo floresiensis). The remains of an individual who would have stood about 3.5 feet (1.1 m) in height were discovered in 2003 on the island of Flores in Indonesia.
These mutations could be from Erectus and Neanderthals or Erectus and Sapiens or even Erectus and Cro-Magnons. The combinations of these matting are almost endless and we only need to see how we cross bred dogs today to see what strange variations of the original Wolf, which shows no clear comparison to the original. So it is not surprising that humans also have such wide physical and aspheric differences. 

The development of the Cro-Magnon and how its family structure was managed is very important if this kind of interbreding was going to be successful and not end up terminated like other mutations. It is more likely that the Neanderthal family groups mated with Sapien males for they are of a ‘matriarchic’ (female based) structure, which is reflected in their burial practices, which indicate that the Neanderthals buried their dead with possessions and flowers long before similar Sapiens burial customs were established. 

It should be remembered that a matriarchy is a social organisational form in which the mother or oldest female heads the family. Descent and relationship are determined through the female line. It is also government or rule by a woman or women. Most anthropologists hold there are no known societies that are unambiguously matriarchal today, but some authors believe exceptions are possible, some of them in the past. . Nevertheless, this loss of such societies does give us a valuable clue to what customs and practices are ‘prehistoric’ and even ‘cro-magnon’ by nature when we look at our ancient history.

It should also be recognised that notwithstanding in today’s societies, in the third world, infanticide would be commonplace as strong independent boys are desired as they are able to work more hours and support the family better than girls who can seem as liabilities. African hunter-gather Sapien groups, would need to travel long distances in the foraging for food so men would be ‘preferred’ within the social group which lived on a ‘survival of the fittest’ ideology which would consequently, be male dominated. These groups would leave the dying, weak and sick (including children and girls) behind on their treks across the open Savannah or over hills and mountains. However, because of this limitation, they could only be successful in climates that we mild and plentiful.


On the other hand, a matriarchy society like the Neanderthals had successfully survived outside Africa for over 100,000 years within a fluctuating climate without extinction - but then disappeared almost overnight without reason or archaeological evidence.  The causation of this extinction could be relatively simple – the female to male ratio being too great/small or quite possibly reintroducing of a Sapien disease, which was deadly to the Neanderthals.  For example, the smallpox plagues that infested Central America after the arrival of the Spanish.  The Aztec war killed little in comparison to the Smallpox that spread North and South killing 90% of the population who had no immunity. Such a disease during the harsh winters of the last ice age would certainly end the Neanderthal species and is further evidence of interbreeding between Sapiens and Neanderthals.

So why was there interbreding?

Males of any species have a tendency to ‘mate’ at random without emotional or family connection for self fulfilment and so the pairing would leave a Neanderthal ‘single mother’ and a Cro-Magnon child who shared the positive aspects of both species.  Alternatively, if the species was disappearing due to the lack of males or a selective disease, the Neanderthals may have no other option but to pair with Sapiens for purely survival of the group.

So what are the positive attributes of this cross-breeding of the Species?

Neanderthals used simple stones for tools. In fact, they constructed and made essentially the same stone tools over and over again for perhaps 200,000 years, until around 35,000 year ago, with little variation or consideration of alternatives.2 They greatly lacked creativity, initiative or imagination, and tended to create simple stone tools that served a single purpose.

As neatly summed up by an ardent defender of Neanderthal cognitive capabilities (Hayden, 1993, p. 139), "as a rule, there is no evidence of private ownership or food storage, no evidence for the use of economic resources for status or political competition, no elaborate burials, no ornaments or other status display items, no skin garments requiring intensive labour to produce, no tools requiring high-energy investments, no intensive regional exchange for rare items like sea shells or amber, no competition for labour to produce economic surpluses and no corporate art or labour intensive rituals in deep cave recesses to impress onlookers and help attract labour."

Neanderthals, tended to live in the "here and now," with limited ability to think about or consider the distant future3, the only remarkable exception, the forthcoming life after death. This noteworthy exception is in part a function of the differential evolution of the frontal versus the temporal lobes. The frontal lobes are the ‘organisational and management’ of the brain and is responsible for initiative, goal formation, long-term planning, the generation of multiple alternatives, and the consideration of multiple alternative consequences. The frontal lobes are the source of creativity and imagination, whereas the temporal lobes are the ‘speech and vision’’ centre of the brain. It is the temporal lobes which were maximally developed in Neanderthals, whereas the frontal lobe would increase in size by a third in the transition from Sapiens to Cro-Magnon.

Based on a gross analysis of the skull and casts made of the inner surface of the skull, it is apparent that Neanderthal men and women possessed a well-developed inferior temporal lobe whereas the frontal lobe is sloped and stunted4. It is the temporal lobes, and the limbic structures buried within which are directly implicated in the generation of personal, emotional, and religious experience, including the ability to form long term emotional attachments and to feel intense love5 and this intense love plays an important role in the nurturing ability of the less mobile Neanderthal groups less probable to abandon their ‘interbred’ babies unlike the more mobile ‘nomad’ Sapien groups.

In fact, Neanderthals provided loving care for friends and family who had been injured or maimed, enabling them to prolong their lives despite their grievous injuries. For example, the skeleton of one Neanderthal male, approximately aged 45 when he died, had been cared for a number of years following profoundly crippling injuries. His right arm had wasted away through disease or injury, and his lower arm and hand had apparently been ripped or bitten off, and his left eye socket, right shoulder, collarbone, and both legs were badly injured. Obviously, someone loved and tenderly cared for this man. He was no doubt a father, a husband, a brother, and son, and someone in his family not only provided long term loving care to make him comfortable in this life, but prepared him for the next life as well.

 Neanderthals were unable to fashion complex tools or think complex thoughts, for they lacked the ‘complex’ language, although they could communicate on a basic level. However, they were people of passion who experienced profound emotions and love; made possible by the limbic system and temporal lobe. In fact, it is because they had the limbic capacity to experience love, spiritual awe, and religious concerns that these expressions of love may have continued beyond death. Hence, the Neanderthals carefully buried their dead, providing them with food and even sprinkling the bodies with seven different types of blooming fragrant flowers.

 In comparison, their ‘interbred’ offspring, the Cro-Magnon, were intellectual giants; they had a brain capacity greater than both mum and dad, inheriting the Neanderthal’s visual cortex and strength/weight with the Sapiens frontal cortex and height/mobility. Cro-Magnons were accomplished artists, musicians, craftsmen, sorcerers, and extremely talented hunters, fishermen, and highly efficient gatherers and herbalists. When they emerged upon the scene over 35,000 years ago, they carried and fashioned tools and weapons that had never been seen before. They had the know how to make and bake pottery to construct clay figurines as well as baking bread by constructing kilns and burn coal to fire and mould their mind’s creations.

As Jacob Bronowski observed in his book and TV series ‘The Ascent of Man’ 1973. “From an early time man made tools by working the stone. Sometimes the stone had a natural grain, sometimes the toolmaker created the lines of cleavage by learning how to strike the stone. It maybe the idea comes, in the first place, from splitting wood, because wood is a material with a visible structure which opens easily along the grain, but which is hard to shear across that grain. And from that simple beginning man prises open the nature of things and uncovers the laws that the structure dictates and reveals. Now the hand no longer imposes itself on the shape of things. Instead, it becomes an instrument of discovery and pleasure together, in which the tool transcends its immediate use and enters into and reveals the qualities and forms that lie hidden in the material. Like a man cutting a crystal, we find in the form within the secret laws of nature.”

However, this ‘new thinking’ and relationships run far deeper than the simple tools; they were re-moulding and discovering, for Bronowski found a ‘direct link’ between art, structure, creativity and society. In reality, these elements show us that this society was ‘well structured’ probably with an established hierarchy system. For us, humans join into families, and families join into kinship groups, the kinship groups into clans or tribes and finally, the tribes into nations or civilisations.

From the time of Erectus that lasted 1.25 million years, humans had utilised fire to keep warm, to provide light, to cook their food, and to ward off animals. Nevertheless, the Cro-Magnon learned just over a couple of thousand years how to make fire using the Firestone; iron pyrite which was repeatedly struck from a flint thus making sparks, which could easily ignite brush. They also created the first rudimentary blast furnaces which were capable of emitting enormous amounts of heat, to fire clay. This was accomplished by digging a tiny tunnel at the bottom of the hearth which allowed air to be drawn in. Indeed, 30,000 years ago these people were making fire hardened ceramics and clay figures of animals and females with bulging buttocks and breasts - which are presumed to be the first goddesses, or just the original ‘impressionist’ art form.  

Much of the art produced, be it finely crafted "laurel leafs" or other artistic masterpieces, may have served a ritual, spiritual or aesthetic function. However, they also created art that was meant to be looked at, owned and admired, and for trade, such as jewellery and household decorations, or as highly prized possession. Likewise, the first musical instruments were created by these people some 25,000 years ago, these included wooden drums, tiny flutes and whistles. 

This civilisation was also the first to weave baskets, and the first to use ‘needle and thread’ in order to make finely fitted clothes, which were carefully and deftly sewn together. Unlike all those who had come before them, they decorated their clothes and tools and weapons with ornamental designs and geometric and animal symbols. Within their underground ‘cathedrals’ (using the stone structure of the cave system as we use stone in our past religious buildings) they left behind elaborate and complex paintings, some of which were dark, mysterious and almost 3-dimensional. These people demonstrated an aesthetic artistic awareness and mastery that were unprecedented and, which equals the ability of any living artist today.

Thirty-five thousand years ago, Cro-Magnon was painting animals not only on walls but on ceilings, utilizing rich yellows, reds, and browns in their paintings and employing the actual shape of the cave walls to conform with and give life-like dimensions, including the illusion of movement to the creature they were depicting. Many of their engravings on bones and stones also show a complete mastery of geometric awareness, and they often used the natural contours of the cave walls, including protuberances, to create a 3-dimensional effect.

The drawing or carving often became a harmonious or rather, an organic part of the object, wall, ceiling, or tool upon which it was depicted. The Cro-Magnon drew and painted scenes, in which animals mated, defecated, fought, charged, and/or were fleeing and dying from wounds inflicted by hunters. The Cro-Magnon cave painters were exceedingly adept at recreating the scenes of everyday life. Moreover, most of the animals were drawn to scale; that is, they were depicted in their actual size; and all this was 35,000 years ago.

“Here I can only give you may personal view” Jacob Bronowski (The Ascent of Man, 1973, BBC) “I think that the power that we see expressed here for the first time is the power of anticipation: the forward-looking imagination. In these paintings the hunter was made familiar with dangers which he knew he had to face but to which he had to overcome. When the hunter was brought here into the secret dark and the light was suddenly flashed on the pictures, he saw the bison as he would face him, he saw the running deer, and he saw the turning boar. And he felt alone with them as he would in the hunt. The moment of fear was made present to him; his spear arm flexed with an experience which he would have and which he needed not to be afraid of. The painter had frozen the moment of fear, and the hunter entered it through the painting as if though an air-lock.”