Saturday, 2 May 2015

Woolly Mammoths - yet more proof of a post ice age marine civilisation

By Robert John Langdon

The proof of my hypothesis can be found in many hundreds of small articles or clues found as 'throw away' pieces on the internet.  The one that caught my eye this week in the national newspapers was "Mammoths DNA shows inbreeding".  The problem with these populist headlines aimed at the general population, is that they are not as they seem.

wooly mammoth and man
Size comparison

Harvard Medical School geneticist Eleftheria Palkopoulou said the genomes indicated two major population crashes: one around 280,000 years ago from which the population recovered, and a second about 12,000 years ago, near the Ice Age's end, from which it did not.


After the second one, an estimated 300 to 1,000 mammoths survived. A small Wrangel Island population existed for about 6,000 years after all mainland mammoths had died. The inbreeding probably harmed the population's viability and contributed to its extinction, Dalén said.



wrangel island
Small island in the middle of nowhere!
I'm sure that on this small island 'inbreeding' could have possibly wiped out that little population but the island is frozen for half the year so moving to the mainland was quite possible.  Moreover, what about Eurasia and American Woolly's did cthey ran away to Wrangle Island?  This original 'clear cut' headline does not hold water!

Wrangel from space
You could walk from the island to the mainland if you wished!
So is their another more 'informed' reason for the change in DNA?

For an answer to this, lets look at what happened the the woolly in America just after the ice age.

Big Love: Woolly Mammoths, Huge Elephants May Have Interbred 

(Journal Genome Biology, May 2011) 

The woolly mammoth may surprisingly have regularly interbred with a completely different and much larger elephant species, researchers now find.

Woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) roamed the planet for roughly 250,000 years, ranging from Europe to Asia to North America. Nearly all of these giants vanished from Siberia by about 10,000 years ago, although dwarf mammoths survived on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean until 3,700 years ago.

Although woolly mammoths lived in the cold of the tundra, the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) preferred the more temperate regions of southern and central North America. The Columbians were much larger than woollies, with Columbian males reaching one-and-a-half to two times that of woolly males.

"We are talking about two very physically different species here," said researcher Hendrik Poinar, an evolutionary geneticist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. "You have roughly 1 million years of separation between the two, with the Columbian mammoth likely derived from an early migration into North America approximately 1.5 million years ago, and their woolly counterparts emigrating to North America some 400,000 years ago."

Poinar and his colleagues investigated the evolution of Columbian mammoths by analyzing DNA retrieved from the tusks, bone and teeth of two approximately 11,000-year-old fossil specimens, one found in the Huntington Reservoir in Utah and the other found near Rawlins, Wyo. The researchers concentrated on the genomes of the mitochondria, the "powerhouses" of the cells, which have their own unique DNA and are inherited from the mother.

Surprisingly, they discovered the mitochondrial genome of the Columbian mammoth was nearly indiscernible from that of its northern woolly counterparts. [Album: 25 Amazing Ancient Beasts]

"At first I thought, 'Oh crap, there's contamination of some sort,'" Poinar said.

However, any minor contamination they found could not explain the extensive genetic evidence they uncovered, and they replicated their results in an independent lab. "I think we were very lucky," Poinar told LiveScience.

"We think we may be looking at a genetic hybrid," said researcher Jacob Enk, a graduate student in the McMaster Ancient DNA Center.

When glacial times got nasty, woollies likely moved to more pleasant conditions southward, where they came into contact with the Columbian mammoths.

"Living African elephant species hybridize where their ranges overlap, with the bigger species out-competing the smaller for mates," Enk added. The offspring are perfectly fertile, Poinar added.

Since woollies and Columbians overlapped in time and space, it is not unlikely that they interbred in much the same manner.

"It reminds me a bit of high-school days — the larger males are more successful at meeting women across the dance floor than the rest of us," Poinar said.

These findings could explain why some mammoth fossils had features intermediate between woollies and Columbians, although the genomes of both species should be sequenced to tell for sure. The researchers also want to look at Columbian mammoth specimens from farther south where no woollies ever ventured, to get an idea of what nonhybrid samples might look like.

So is it possible that the change of genomes in Eurasian Mammoths are actually down to cross-breeding rather than 'inbreeding'?

If so - how did the elephants get from Africa or/and Asia (more accurately the far east!!).  Moreover, Elephant bones are found in Northern Europe (including Doggerland) as well as in America - sadly these bones are incorrectly dated not by carbon dating but by assumption (that well known Scientific technique!!)

So unless they got lost and walked to America or Britain, someone brought them from African if not India in a ship - So who are they?

Well what other prehistoric 'megalithic builders' do we know that sailed the four corners of the Earth just after the last Ice Age - The Cro-Magnons and this same sequence of animal usage and extinction is seen in Mammoths, Horses, Dogs and sabre toothed Tigers we will detail in our next book 'Dawn of the Lost Civilisation' out soon.

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